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3D Printing Workshop

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Jenny Wong-Welch

on 24 January 2017

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Transcript of 3D Printing Workshop

3D Printing Workshop
Types of 3D Printing
3D Printing Uses
3D Printers
How our 3D Printer work?
3D Printing at build IT
Hands-on Activity
Finding a .stl on Thingiverse.com
Design a 3D model on tinkercad.com
looking at your .stl file in Makerbot Desktop
Submitting a 3D print request
Makerbot Desktop Replicator
(5th Generation)
Cubify CubePro
9.9 L x 7.8 W x 5.9 H in
252 x 199 x 150 mm
10.6 L x 9.56 W x 9.06 H in
270.4 x 242.9 x 230 mm
What do material is used?
Polylactic Acid (PLA)
(C3 H6 O3)x
Created from processing plant products including corn, potatoes or sugar-beets
Derived from sugar gives off a smell similar to a semi-sweet cooking oil
Used primarily in food packaging and containers
A more 'earth friendly' plastic, so it can be composted at a commercial compost facilities
Naturally transparent
Low melting temperature makes it unsuitable for many applications as even parts spending the day in a hot car can droop and deform
Source: http://www.protoparadigm.com/news-updates/the-difference-between-abs-and-pla-for-3d-printing/(April 18, 2015)
Makerbot Desktop
Extruder
Print Design
Printer Mechanics
Cartesian Frame
Support Material
Raft Material
3D Printer Software
Translates a 3D model into code that can be read by the 3D printer (x,y,z coordinates)

Convert .stl into .makerbot
http://www.makerbot.com/desktop
Jenny Wong-Welch, STEM Librarian
Goal is to finish a print by using the least amount of material in the shortest time duration
A technique used to prevent warping. Parts are built on top of a 'raft' of disposable material instead of directly on the build surface. The raft is larger than the part and so has more adhesion. For the small area models, it is very useful to prevent warping via adding a raft for the model. It can also help with with precision parts by removing the slight first few layer distortion.
For any part of the model where there is an overhang or gap between parts, a support material is laid down (as it would be impossible to print into thin air). The support material is removed once the print has finished, revealing the desired print. This removal can be accomplished by washing, dissolving, or breaking the support material off of the object.
Standard Tessellation Language or Stereo Lithography
Detail of shape
Size & Volume
The first lab-grown organ is implanted in humans when young patients undergo urinary bladder augmentation using a 3-D synthetic scaffold coated with their own cells. The technology, developed by scientists at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, opened the door to developing other strategies for engineering organs, including printing them. Because they are made with
a patient’s own cells, there is little to no risk of rejection.
WORLD’S FIRST 3D-PRINTED ROBOTIC AIRCRAFT
Engineers at the University of Southampton design and fly the world’s first 3D-printed aircraft. This unmanned aircraft is built in seven days for a budget of £5,000. 3D printing allows the plane to be built with elliptical wings, a normally expensive feature that helps improve aerodynamic efficiency and minimizes induced drag.
3D PRINTING IN GOLD AND SILVER
i.materialise becomes the first 3D printing service worldwide to offer 14K gold and sterling silver as materials — potentially opening a new and less expensive manufacturing option for jewelry designers.
3D-PRINTED PROSTHETIC JAW IS IMPLANTED
Doctors and engineers in the Netherlands use a 3D printer
made by LayerWise to print a customized three-dimensional prosthetic lower jaw, which is subsequently implanted into an 83-year old woman suffering from a chronic bone infection. This technology is currently being explored to promote the growth of new bone tissue.
Resolution
Standard - .2mm
art vs prototyping
Step 1: CAD
Step 2: Conversion to STL
Step 3: Transfer to Additive Manufacturing Machine and STL File manipulation
Step 4: Machine Setup
Step 5: Build
Step 6: Removal
Step 7: Post-processing
Step 8: Application
Bio-Engineering
Manufacturing
Kor Ecologic unveils Urbee, a sleek, environmentally friendly prototype car with a complete 3D-printed body at the TEDxWinnipeg conference in Canada. Designed to be fuel efficient and inexpensive, Urbee gets 200 mpg highway and 100 mpg city. It is estimated to retail for $10,000 to $50,000 if it becomes commercially viable.
WORLD’S FIRST 3D-PRINTED CAR
Fashion
Scientists engineer a miniature functional kidney that is able to filter blood and produce diluted urine in an animal. The development led to research at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine that aims to “print” organs and tissues using 3D printing technology
A WORKING 3D KIDNEY
1999
2002
ENGINEERED ORGANS BRING
NEW ADVANCES TO MEDICINE
2012
2008
MAJOR BREAKTHROUGH
FOR PROSTHETICS
The first person walks on a 3D-printed prosthetic leg, with all parts — knee, foot, socket, etc. — printed in the same complex structure without any assembly. The development guides the creation of Bespoke Innovations, a manufacturer of prosthetic devices which makes customized coverings that surround prosthetic legs.
v
2011
2011
Stereolithography
DLP - Digital Light Processing
Stereolithography (SL) is widely recognized as the first 3D printing process; it was certainly the first to be commercialised. SL is a laser-based process that works with photopolymer resins, that react with the laser and cure to form a solid in a very precise way to produce very accurate parts. It is a complex process, but simply put, the photopolymer resin is held in a vat with a movable platform inside. A laser beam is directed in the X-Y axes across the surface of the resin according to the 3D data supplied to the machine (the .stl file), whereby the resin hardens precisely where the laser hits the surface. Once the layer is completed, the platform within the vat drops down by a fraction (in the Z axis) and the subsequent layer is traced out by the laser. This continues until the entire object is completed and the platform can be raised out of the vat for removal.
DLP — or digital light processing — is a similar process to stereolithography in that it is a 3D printing process that works with photopolymers. The major difference is the light source. DLP uses a more conventional light source, such as an arc lamp, with a liquid crystal display panel or a deformable mirror device (DMD), which is applied to the entire surface of the vat of photopolymer resin in a single pass, generally making it faster than SL.
Laser Sintering / Laser Melting
Laser sintering and laser melting are interchangeable terms that refer to a laser based 3D printing process that works with powdered materials. The laser is traced across a powder bed of tightly compacted powdered material, according to the 3D data fed to the machine, in the X-Y axes. As the laser interacts with the surface of the powdered material it sinters, or fuses, the particles to each other forming a solid. As each layer is completed the powder bed drops incrementally and a roller smoothes the powder over the surface of the bed prior to the next pass of the laser for the subsequent layer to be formed and fused with the previous layer.
Extrusion / FDM / FFF
3D printing utilizing the extrusion of thermoplastic material is easily the most common and recognizable process. The
most popular name for the process is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), due to its longevity, however this is a trade name, registered by Stratasys, the company that originally developed it. However, the proliferation of entry-level 3D printers that have emerged since 2009 largely utilize a similar process, generally referred to as Freeform Fabrication (FFF), but in a more basic form due to patents still held by Stratasys.

The process works by melting plastic filament that is deposited, via a heated extruder, a layer at a time, onto a build platform according to the 3D data supplied to the printer. Each layer hardens as it is deposited and bonds to the previous layer. Stratasys has developed a range of proprietary industrial grade materials for its FDM process that are suitable for some production applications. At the entry-level end of the market, materials are more limited, but the range is growing. The most common materials for entry-level FFF 3D printers are ABS and PLA.

The FDM/FFF processes require support structures for any applications with overhanging geometries. For FDM, this entails a second, water-soluble material, which allows support structures to be relatively easily washed away, once the print is complete. Alternatively, breakaway support materials are also possible, which can be removed by manually snapping them off the part.

Support structures, or lack thereof, have generally been a limitation of the entry level FFF 3D printers. However, as the systems have evolved and improved to incorporate dual extrusion heads, it has become less of an issue.
Inkjet: Binder Jetting
Binder jetting: where the material being jetted is a binder, and is selectively sprayed into a powder bed of the part material to fuse it a layer at a time to create/print the required part. As is the case with other powder bed systems, once a layer is completed, the powder bed drops incrementally and a roller or blade smoothes the powder over the surface of the bed, prior to the next pass of
the jet heads, with the binder for the subsequent layer to be formed and fused with the previous layer.
Inkjet: Material Jetting
Material jetting: a 3D printing process whereby the actual build materials (in liquid or molten state) are selectively jetted through multiple jet heads (with others simultaneously jetting support materials). However, the materials tend to be liquid photopolymers, which are cured with a pass of UV light as each layer is deposited.
from "The Free Beginner's Guide to 3D Printing" by 3dprintingindustry.com http://3dprintingindustry.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/3D-Printing-Guide.pdf
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