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Goal

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by

George Forst

on 28 October 2014

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Transcript of Goal

The PRINCIPLES of DESIGN
UNITY and VARIETY
REPETITION and RHYTHM
"Unity is the appearance or condition of oneness. When the appearance of a work of art has unity we feel that any change would diminish its quality." However to much unity can be visually boring

"Variety provides diversity. " To much variety results in chaos. "Many artists strive for a balance between unity and variety."
BALANCE
The textbook says, "Balance is the achievement in equilibrium, in which acting influences are held in check by opposing forces." The two general types of balance are symmetrical (formal) and asymmetrical (informal).
Our goal will be to identify the type of balance used in a composition.
EMPHASIS and SUBORDINATION
Artists use emphasis to draw our attention to a specific area in the composition.
This can be called the focal point.

Through subordination an artist creates an area of lesser interest.
Goal
Understand how a work of art is created using the principles of design to arrange the visual elements.

UNITY and VARIETY
BALANCE
EMPHASIS and SUBORDINATION
DIRECTIONAL FORCES
CONTRAST
REPETITION and RHYTHM
SCALE and PROPORTION
In the two dimensional arts such as drawing and painting this organization is called a composition
Repetition establishes a regular beat.

Rhythm provides for a variation on the beat.
Unity is created through the use of line shape and color. Repetition occurs in the shape of the green chairs and the shape of the green window shades. Notice the color red is used in a variety of shapes.

This painting is an abstract work of art. The content has been reduced to its essence. Seats are suggested with green geometric triangles. The people are suggested through the use of organic shapes.
Jacob Lawrence. "Going Home". 1946
Gouache. 21 1/2" x 29 1/2"
Jacob Lawrence balances unity and variety in his painting, "Going Home."
The abstract quality of Jacob Lawrence's "Going Home" (20th c.) contrasts with the representational art work titled, "Interior of a Dutch House." by Pieter de Hooch 17th c.
. Patrick Frank say," Each artist depicted daily life in a style relevant to his times. In each the painters depiction of shapes in space provides the unity in the composition.
Pattern is created in the geometric shapes
of the floor tiles. Organic shapes are represented by the grouping of three figures by the table and one
figure in front of the fireplace.

Unity is created by the rectangles forming the geometric floor pattern which are repeated in the map, the painting and the ceiling.
Variety is presented within the organic shapes.
The shapes and the colors, red/yellow, provide variety
Symmetrical balance is the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a three dimensional form or a two dimensional composition.
With Asymmetrical balance, the left and right sides are not the same.
Symmetrical Balance
In Two Dimensional Composition
Damien Hirst, "Posterity-The Holy Place", 2006, Butterflies and household gloss on canvas, 89" x 48"
Few works of art are perfectly
symmetrical, "Posterity-The holy Place"
by Damien Hirst is one. To analyze
the balance, imagine a vertical line drawn through the center of the composition.
Look at the shapes and colors on the left side as compared to the shapes and colors of the right side. When these visual elements appear to match in shape and size the composition can be said to be symmetrical
Symmetrical balance in a
three dimensional form
This is the "White House" located in Washington DC and designed by James Hoban. Notice the same size shapes on the left as on the right of an imaginary line dividing the building vertically in half. When sizes and shapes are near or exactly the same on the left and right sides of a three dimensional form then the balance is symmetrical
Asymmetrical Balance
The content of Hokusai's print, "The Wave," centers on the large wave which is about to crash down upon the fishermen in their boats. You can figure out what the balance is by dividing the composition in half with a vertical line, Compare the size and shapes on the right with the size and shapes on the left.
Artists use emphasis to draw our attention to a specific area in the composition.
This can be called the focal point.
Poussin placed the most important figure in the center, the strongest location in any visual field.
Nicolas Poussin, "The Holy family on the Steps", 1648
Oil on Canvas
Directional Forces
Like emphasis and subordination, artists use directional forces to influence the way we look at a work of art.

Directional forces are visual "paths" for the eye to follow. Direction forces are provided by the visual element known as actual or implied line.

Studying directional lines and forces often reveals a work of art's underlying basic visual structure.
The shapes of the horses and Jockeys provide a focal point starting with the horse and rider in the foreground.
This creates an implied directional line from the foreground to the middle ground to the background.
Edgar Degas, "Jockeys Before the Race", 1878-1879, Oil, Gouache, pastel
DIRECTIONAL FORCES
CONTRAST
Contrast is the juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements.

Dramatic effects can be produced
when dark is set against light, large
against small, geometric shapes against organic shapes.

In this "Luster Painted Bowl" the gold luster contrasts with the blue accents.
CONTRAST
Repetition and Rhythm
In music, repetition establishes a regular beat. In the visual arts the repetition of visual elements can give a composition unity, continuity, and emphasis.

Rhythm provides a variation on a regular beat. Rhythm in the visual arts is produced with visual elements such as line and shape.

Japanese artist Ogata Korin used repetition and rhythm in the Ink on Paper composition titled "Cranes."

Repetition and Rhythm can be seen Jose Clemente Orozco's painting titled," Zapatistas."
Repetition and Rhythm can be seen Jose Clemente Orozco's painting titled," Zapatistas." Diagional lines dominate this composition. The lines and shapes of the figures provide repetition. The shape and color of the hats provide rhythm.

Japanese artist Ogata Korin used repetition and rhythm in the Ink on Paper composition titled "Cranes." Notice the regular "beat" of the six rectangular shapes upon which the cranes are painted. The shapes of the birds provide the variation on this beat which is called rhythm.
SCALE and PROPORTION
Scale is the size relation of one thing to another.
Proportion is the size relationship of parts to a whole.

Scale and proportion are effected by there surroundings. The middle black circle is the same size in both diagrams.
Artists in the 20th c.
such as Claus Oldenburg have distorted scale for visual effect. He has distorted the scale of the"Shuttlecocks" for visual delight.
Format refers to the size and shape- and thus to the scale and proportion
of a two dimensional picture plane.
Scale and proportion are essential for perceiving the illusion of depth in representational painting.
This chapter has presented some of the principles of design that guide the creation of artworks.
The Goal of this presentation was to understand how a work of art is created using the principles of design to arrange the visual elements.
Henri Matisse, "Expression is Foremost"
For Matisse, a painting was a combination of lines, shapes and colors before it was a picture of any object. His personal style was based on intuition, however he acknowledged, through his years of study, he had assimilated influences from the Near East and Africa
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