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Chapter 15: The Age of Reason
Transcript of Chapter 15: The Age of Reason
: Study movement of stars and planets.
: Study bacteria and other organisms.
: Study weather.
Expansion of Scientific knowledge led to mathematics becoming the language of science.
The Scientific Tools
The Age of Reason
Established use of chemicals to treat illnesses.
Since human body is made of chemicals, then chemical should be used to treat the body.
Contributed to physics and mathematics.
Expressed his ideas about gravity in Principia in 1687.
Used by scientists when seeking answers to questions of the physical world (See pg. 323)
Through method scientists gain better understanding of function of God’s universe.
Explains how something happens but not why.
Can’t make moral judgments.
Scientists are limited and scientific knowledge is expanding and facts are often proved wrong.
The Scientific Method
Middle Age Understanding:
Renaissance and Reformation:
Errors were found in tradition and philosophies.
People began searching the Bible for themselves.
Many saw science as a way to glorify God
Mapped the earth on a flat surface.
Revolution increased knowledge of physical universe:
Relied on theories of Ptolemy until 16th Century.
Did not use a telescope
Formed the Heliocentric Theory. (Sun Centered)
Roman Catholic Church opposed such a theory.
Improved telescope and confirmed heliocentric theory.
Agreed that planets orbit is elliptical.
Was forced by church to retract his theories.
Known as the “Father of Anatomy” for his studies of the human body through dissecting cadavers
Developed the smallpox vaccination.
“Father of Experimental Biology”
Studied heart and blood circulation.
Discovered heart acts as a pump and blood is circulated and not consumed.
Alchemists quit trying to change lead to gold and began analyzing chemicals to determine their properties.
“Boyle’s Law” inverse gas pressure.
Lectured in defense of Christianity.
Named the substance hydrogen.
Concluded that matter can’t be created or destroyed.
Contributions in Other Scientific Fields:
Made microscope lenses magnifying up to 160 times.
18th Century French writers and social critics who acted as spokesmen of the enlightenment.
Championed secular society, religious toleration, freedom of speech, and natural rights of men.
Spokesmen of the Enlightenment
feared man could be deceived by senses and relied only on reason aided by mathematics.
Came up with deductive method of reasoning.
Forerunners of the Enlightenment
Favored emotion and sentiment above reason.
Called “Father of Romanticism” because he set thought pattern for first half of 19th Century the “Romantic Age”
Believed man was born free and believed in man’s goodness.
The Social Contract: Thought government should be built upon will of the people.
Favored democracy over representative or absolute governments.
Used wit to criticize others, which got him banished from France.
Critic of organized religion and politics:
Though religion should be ruled by reason.
Fought for freedom of the press.
Greatly influenced by Locke’s defense of natural rights and promotion that men could change government.
Believed England was symbol of political freedom and believed in separation of three political powers:
Political theory on separation of powers impacted framers of our Constitution.
Explanations of Reality:
Approaches to Learning:
Sir Francis Bacon
criticized medieval philosophers and how they arrived at conclusions about the natural world.
Bacon questioned all existing knowledge and claimed scientists should gather more information to verify results. This is known as the inductive method.
Two types of reality:
Mind (spiritual world) Matter (physical world)
Truth in the physical world can be found through reason
Everything (spiritual or physical) is part of one great substance called “God”
Had no used for the biblical concept of God.
All knowledge comes through experience.
Rejected idea that God implanted certain truths within each person.
Held to idea that a baby’s mind is like a “blank tablet” and given right experiences and education, a child would grow into the right kind of person.
French writers influenced by Locke’s political ideas:
Locke held to idea that men possess certain natural and unalienable rights.
Two Treatises of Government
Diderot and the Encyclopedie:
French Encyclopedie chief instrument in spreading ideas of philosophes:
Denis Diderot edited the publication which was opposed by the French government and Roman Catholic Church.
God designed and created but then stepped away from his Creation.
God was impersonal to them.
Life guided by human reason would be rewarded in the life to come.
Great numbers of Colonists were converted.
25,000-50,000 were converted in New England alone, and 150 new churches were established.
Christians became more concerned about missions.
Several colleges established to train Christian ministers:
Ex. College of New Jersey.
Revival helped draw Christians of various denominations together in fellowship.
Not everyone in the Age of Reason trusted human wisdom over God.
True enlightenment came as men discovered truth of God’s Word and believed it.
Changed lives in several countries.
Taught that having knowledge of Christ and belonging to a church did not bring salvation.
Ordained in 1735.
Traveled preaching the gospel:
Preached on seven occasions in American Colonies.
Helped Great Awakening in America.
Traveled 250,000 miles on horseback and preached 42,000 sermons.
1735 came to America as a missionary, but unsure of whether or not he was saved.
May 24, 1738 Wesley was saved.
Preached four times a day, beginning at 5:00 am.
Age 70 spoke to 30,000 people.
Faced opposition and is considered the “Father of the Methodist Church”
Showed concern and noticed Christians needed close fellowship:
Organized Bible study and prayer meetings, and outlined church failures and called for spiritual renewal.
Christians organized “assemblies of piety”
Revivals in Germany
Trained Pietist pastors and missionaries:
Preachers and missionaries carried the gospel throughout Germany, America, and India.
Established 21 educational institutions emphasizing godliness and Christian wisdom.
17th Century Germany:
Lutheran Church had declined:
Clergy poorly trained, and sometimes unconverted.
Nikolaus von Zinzendorf
Left Lutheran Church and became leader of Moravians:
John Wesley came to salvation through Moravians.
Climaxed between 1740-1742.
Reflected political and religious tensions of Reformation era.
Works were filled with distortions and exaggerations.
El Greco (1541-1614):
Created mystical atmosphere with contrasting colors.
Grand, dynamic, heroic, active, swirling, sensual, and emotional.
Artists captured mood of the time.
“The Meeting of Abraham” pg. 398.
Architect and sculptor.
Sculptures captured motion:
Hair flowing, muscles rippling, and robes billowing.
French style used in interior decorating:
Was delicate and feminine.
Antoine Watteau (1684-1721):
Leading rococo painter.
Art expressed conviction of Enlightenment:
Man reasoned art should conform to certain restrictions.
Artists imitated ideals of ancient Greece and Rome:
Interest in neoclassical art heightened with discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Leading opera composer of Italian baroque style.
Skillfully combined text, music, scenery, and dances into a masterpiece
Mostly composed music for Lutheran Church.
Work was not well known until later generations.
Most famous work the Passion According to St. Matthew.
The Classical Age in Music
Wrote 104 symphonies, 83 sting quartets, over 50 piano sonatas, several operas, and 2 oratorios.
Set style for symphonic composition:
Called “Father of the Symphony”
Works influenced Mozart and Beethoven.
Known as a musical genius.
Wrote 22 operas, some of which are still performed today.
Composed works on piano that helped popularize the new instrument.
Died at age 35 in poverty and was buried in an unmarked grave.
Discovered several important chemical substances.
Along with Benjamin Franklin he experimented with electricity.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723:
Gerhardus Mercator 1512-1594:
Contributions in Other Scientific Fields:
The Religion of the Enlightenment
Faith was placed in reason instead of God:
Did not deny God’s existence, however rejected the supernatural.
Denied man being born a sinner.
Revivals in England
Revivals in America
Advocated the need for personal conversion.
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”:
Preached in 1741 at Enfield, Connecticut.
Warned unrepentant hearers that God’s mercy kept them from burning in hell.
Many in Enfield came to salvation.
Painter who popularized baroque style.
Studied works of master painters of Italy.
Created subtle moods with use of gold tones and warm browns.
Portraits reveal psychological insight into man’s inner nature.
Themes of paintings were inspired by Scripture.
The Rococo Style:
17th and 18th Centuries:
Baroque Age in Music
Baroque art and music shared similar adjectives and broke past traditions:
See list on pg. 340.
Famous English opera composer.
Began writing opera and later switched to oratorios:
Wrote well known Messiah in 1741.
J.S. Bach (1685-1750):
1750 to early 1800’s:
Music reflected order and balance of Enlightenment.
Literature in the Age of Reason
Wrote Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire:
Blamed barbarian tribes as well as Christians for Rome’s decline.
Foremost poetic satirist of the Age of Reason.
Exposed follies of the day in his writings.
Master of verses
Age of Neoclassical Literature:
Remembered for comedies where he pokes fun at hypocrisy and vices in society.
Alexander Pope (1688-1744):
Master of Prose Writing:
Helped lead to development of modern novel.
Most famous work Gulliver’s Travels.
Thought societies problems resulted from man’s failure to use his capacity of reason.
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745):
Edward Gibbon (1737-1794):
Age of Neoclassical Literature:
Specific cases to general conclusions
Simple premise to more complex truth
"I doubt, therefore I think; I think, therefore I am"