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Copy of HSCI 120 Chronic Diseases (Chapter 14)

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Christy Scroggins

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of Copy of HSCI 120 Chronic Diseases (Chapter 14)

Types of Stroke
Cardiovascular Disease
Chronic Lung Diseases

Chapter 14:
Chronic bronchitis:
persistent inflammation of the bronchioles; excess mucus
Bronchial congestion and a chronic cough
For long-term control:
An inhaled steroid that works within the bronchioles to reduce inflammation
Avoidance of common triggers such as tobacco smoke, allergens, and air pollution
Flu shots recommended if viruses & infections are triggers
Two most common forms:
Chronic Lung Diseases
Develops in
of pregnancies
Gestational Diabetes

Onset is usually gradual
Type-2 Diabetes
Caused by the destruction of
insulin-producing cells
in the pancreas by the immune system
Type-1 Diabetes
Seventh leading cause of death in the U.S.
Diagnostic testing
CT or MRI scan (images of the brain)
Examination of the carotid arteries
Testing & Treatment for Stroke
Surgical management
Angioplasty (balloon catheter)
Coronary artery bypass grafting
Testing & Treatment for Heart Disease
Noncontrollable Factors in Cardiovascular Health
Alcohol intake
Heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) can damage the heart
Light drinking (less than 2 drinks/day) can increase HDL levels, therefore protecting against heart disease and stroke risk
Contributing Factors in Cardiovascular Health
Untreated high blood pressure/hypertension:
Can weaken and scar the arteries and make the heart work harder
Can cause heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease, peripheral artery disease, and blindness
Blood Pressure:
Mitral Valve Prolapse

Heart valve disorders: Most common is the mitral valve prolapse
Other Cardiovascular Diseases

Ischemic stroke:
caused by blockage in a blood vessel in the brain (accounts for 87% of all strokes)
Myocardial infarction:
lack of blood flow to the heart muscle with resulting death of heart tissue, often called a heart attack
Coronary heart disease (CHD):
atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, which can result in a heart attack
Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attack
Starts with damage to the inner lining of vessels and the formation of a fatty streak—an accumulation of lipoproteins within the walls of an artery
The Heart
largest artery in the body
Leaves the heart and branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and capillaries carrying oxygen-rich blood to body tissues
Pulmonary circulation:
the pumping of oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood back to the heart by the right side of the heart
The Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular disease mortality trends:
males and females, United States, 1979-2006.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD): any disease involving the heart and/or blood vessels
Cardiovascular Disease
Eat a heart-healthy diet
Avoid overweight and obesity
Don’t smoke, and avoid secondhand smoke
Be physically active
Limit alcohol consumption
Maintain healthy blood pressure levels
Maintain healthy lipid levels
Maintain healthy blood glucose levels
Manage stress, and take care of your mental, emotional, & social health

Preventing Chronic Diseases
Attack occurs in response to a trigger: an allergen or an irritant in the air
The Respiratory System

Diagnosed if three of the following present:
Metabolic Syndrome
Low levels of vitamin D
High blood levels of homocysteine, an amino acid
Metabolic syndrome
High levels of C-reactive protein in the blood
Infections that may cause atherosclerotic plaques to break free
Lower birth weight
Areas of Interest for Future CVD Research
Prevalence of Hypertension; Prevalence of Angina or Coronary Artery Disease (Who’s at Risk?).

Risk for CVD

Tobacco use
Major Controllable Factors in Cardiovascular Health

Condition in which the heart is not pumping the blood as well as it should, allowing blood and fluids to back up in the lungs
Congestive Heart Failure
irregular or disorganized heartbeat
Arrhythmias and
Sudden Cardiac Death
Percentage of deaths from types of CVD, United States, 2010.
Insulin & Glucose Uptake
Chronic Diseases
The disease process underlying many forms of CVD is atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries
CVD is a general term for diseases that include heart attack, stroke, peripheral artery disease, congestive failure, and others
Currently the leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 34.3% of all deaths
A common form of arteriosclerosis that involves a thickening or hardening of the arteries due to the buildup of fats and other substances
Results in slow blood flow, reducing the amount of blood to the tissues
Once an injury exists on the artery, white blood cells, collagen, and other proteins are formed, creating plaque (accumulation of debris in an artery wall),
Plaque can break off and completely block the artery
Cardiovascular system: the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body
Systemic circulation:
the pumping of oxygen-rich blood to the body and oxygen-poor blood back to the heart by the left side of the heart
The Cardiovascular System
Sinus node:
group of cells in the right atrium where the electrical signal is generated that establishes the heartbeat
Coronary arteries:
medium-sized arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle
Vena cava:
largest vein in the body
Carries oxygen-poor blood from the body back to the heart
Those who survive a heart attack are often left with damaged hearts and significantly altered lives
An estimated
17.6 million
Americans are living with CHD
CHD is the leading form of all cardiovascular diseases
Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attack
pain, pressure, heaviness, or tightness in the center of the chest caused by a narrowed coronary artery
insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissue, caused by narrowed or blocked arteries
Coronary thrombosis:
blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot that may cause sudden death
million Americans live with this condition
Person with this condition experiences difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and confusion
Can develop after a heart attack or as a result of hypertension, heart valve abnormality, or disease of the heart muscle
Sudden cardiac death:
abrupt loss of heart function caused by an irregular or ineffective heartbeat
Ventricular fibrillation:
type of arrhythmia in which the ventricles contract rapidly and erratically, causing the heart to quiver or “tremor” rather than beat
Normal adult heart rate is
60–100 beats/minute
A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when blood flow to the brain or part of the brain is blocked
Fourth leading cause of death in the United States; leading cause of severe, long-term disability
Hemorrhagic stroke:
caused by rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, with bleeding into brain tissue
Cardiomyopathy: Disease of the heart muscle
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD): Atherosclerosis in the arms and legs
Congenital heart disease: Structural defect at birth
Rheumatic heart disease: Due to rheumatic fever (strep throat)
Blood glucose levels
Physical activity
Cholesterol levels
Blood pressure levels
Force exerted by blood against artery walls
Determined by two forces:
Pressure when the heart contracts (top number)
Pressure in the arteries when the heart is relaxed (bottom number)
blood pressure that is forceful enough to damage artery walls.
Psychosocial factors
Personality, chronic stress, socioeconomic status, depression, and social support
Triglyceride levels
Levels of these blood fats should be less than 150 to achieve desired levels
Postmenopausal status
Ethnicity and race
Genetics and family history
Diagnostic testing
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
Echocardiogram (sound waves)
Exercise stress test
Coronary angiograms (dye)
Medical management
If thrombotic, thrombolytic medications can dissolve clot and restore blood flow to the brain
Rehabilitation, usually including physical therapy
Researchers are looking at how the following are associated with CVD:
All types of diabetes result in elevated blood glucose levels due to a disruption in the production or use of insulin
Most common
disorder of the endocrine or metabolic system
Physical activity is an important component of control and reduction in long-term complications
Probably a result of a combination of genetic, autoimmune, and environmental factors
Onset usually occurs before age 20
Insulin must be provided from an external source to keep blood glucose levels under control
Prediabetes: fasting blood glucose levels between 100 and 126 mg/dl
Caused by insulin
resistance in the insulin receptors
in body cells
Pancreas responds by increasing production of insulin, but eventually cannot keep up
Accounts for 90–95% of all diabetes cases
Incidence rising in parallel with obesity levels
Visceral fat and lack of physical activity are strong indicators of risk
Set of conditions that significantly increases the risk for developing diabetes & other health complications
Systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85
Waist circumference ≥ 40″ for men; ≥ 35″ for women
Triglycerides ≥ 150
HDL cholesterol < 40 in men; < 50 in women
Fasting glucose level ≥ 100
Women with a history of gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of developing diabetes in the next 10–20 years
In 5–10% of cases, diabetes becomes an ongoing condition
Higher risk for pregnancies after age 35
Hormonal changes affect the body’s
response to insulin
Also known as chronic lower respiratory diseases
Third leading cause of death in the U.S.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Primary cause in most cases is smoking
Secondary causes: pollution, infection, and genetic factors
Large genetic component
no symptoms between episodes
Chronic inflammation, obstruction, and constriction of the airways, causing wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath
Diagnostic categories:
daily symptoms place extreme limits on normal activity
daily symptoms limit normal activity
Mild persistent:
symptoms a few times a week
quick-relief medications used during an attack to reduce symptoms
Delivered through an inhaler
Treatments similar for COPD
Tends to develop from cumulative damage to airways and alveoli; primary cause is smoking
alveoli become less elastic, and walls between alveoli are damaged or destroyed
Person is breathless and gasps for air
Strains the heart
Cannot be reversed; supplemental oxygen may be necessary at later stages
For Next Class...
Read chapter 2
(mental health & stress)
Only 4 more lectures before M2
Full transcript