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Space Race

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Kimberly Acevedo

on 20 May 2016

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Transcript of Space Race

Events that may have led to to the space race.
- The USSR launched the first satellite into space, sputnik.
- The US wanted to catch up because of the cold war and to satisfy its citizens and look more powerful
- USSR sent the first human into space and the us did so soon after

video/ secondary source link
Summary
It all started after the end of World War ||. On October 4, 1957 Russia launches Sputnik the worlds first man made satellite into space. It was a small metal ball, that launched a space race between U.S.S.R and the U.S. Sputnik wasn't actually the first satellite to go into space it was Germany who launched the V-2 rocket. So the U.S and the U.S.S.R took away some of the most talented scientist from Germany who created the first rocket. By Aug. 1957 the soviets successfully tested the first intercontinental ballistic missile, the R-7. Crazy thing about sputnik was that it could be used to launch a nuclear war head at any city. so the U.S fired back with a rocket that fell down 2 sec. later. Then, after a year the rocket was successfully launched. John Glenn got to be the first man on space in orbit in February 1962. By the end of the 1960's Neil Armstrong got to be the first man on the moon, they succeeded through the Apollo program. The two presidents decided to negotiate with the so called Apollo- Soyuz in which an american Apollo space craft docked with a soviet Soyuz craft and the two crews met. Celebrating.
This lasted eighteen years.
Map
Space Race
vocabulary
1.
Rendezvous (N)
- an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance.
2.
Retrorockets (N)
- a rocket engine providing thrust opposing the motion of a vehicle, thereby causing it to declare (slow down)
3.
Aerodynamic forces(
VB)- drag, lift, thrust, and gravit/ weight.
4.
Inertia (N)
- an object resistance to being changed in motion unless pushed or pulled by an unbalanced force.
5. J
ettison (V)-
To cast overboard or off: a ship jettisoning wastes; a pilot jettisoning aircraft fuel.
6.
Nebula (N)
- a cloud of gas and dust in outer space, visible in the night sky either as an indistinct bright patch or as a dark silhouette against other luminous matter.
7.
Nadir (N)
- the point on the celestial sphere directly below an observer.

Timeline
1957

-
Oct. 4. USSR launches first sputnik 1.
Nov. 3. USSR launches sputnik 2 which carried a small dog named laika into the orbit.
1958
-
Jan. 31.Explorer 1, the first American satellite to reach orbit, is launched. It carried scientific equipment that lead to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt.
Mar.5.- Explorer 2 is launched but it fails to reach orbit.
Mar. 17- The Vanguard 1 satellite is launched. It continues to function for 3 years.
May.15.- Sputnik 3 is launched
.
Oct.1.- The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is formed, it replaces the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA).
Oct.11.- Pioneer 1 is launched to a height of 70,700 miles.

Timeline cont.
1959
-

Jan.2. Luna 1 is launched by the USSR. It is the first manmade object to orbit the Sun.
Mar.3. Pioneer 4 is launched on a Earth-Moon trajectory. It passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before falling into a solar orbit.
Apr.2. The "Mercury Seven" astronauts are selected by NASA.
Sep.12. Luna 2 is launched. It impacts the Moon on September 13, becoming the first man-made object to do so.
Oct.4.Luna 3 orbits the Moon and photographs 70% of its surface.
1960
-

April.1.Tiros 1, the first successful weather satellite, is launched
Aug.18.The US launches Discoverer XIV, its first camera equipped spy satellite
Nov.8. John F. Kennedy is elected the 35th President of the United States

Timeline cont.
1961
-
Apr.12.Yuri Gagarin orbits the Earth once and becomes the first man in space.
May.5.Alan B. Shepard becomes the first American in space
May.25.President John F. Kennedy addresses Congress and challenges the nation to go to the Moon before the end of the decade.
Jul.21.Gus Grissom is launched on a sub-orbital flight. His Liberty-Bell capsule is lost when it fills with water and sinks after splashdown.
Aug.6.Gherman Titov spends a day in space aboard Vostok 2.
Dec.7.NASA announces the Gemini Program.
1962
-
Feb.20.John Glenn orbits the Earth three times.
May.24.Scott Carpenter repeats John Glenn's flight aboard "Aurora 7"

Timeline cont.
Sep.12.President Kennedy gives a speech at Rice University reaffirming the importance of the Moon program.
Sep.17.NASA selects its second group of astronauts
Oct.3.Walter Schirra orbits the Earth six times.
Dec.14.Mariner 2 flies past Venus and enters a solar orbit.
1963-
May.15.L. Gordon Cooper spends 34 hours in space. He is the last American to fly in space alone.


Timeline cont.
Jun.16. Cosmonaut Valentia Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space.
Oct.17. A third group of NASA astronauts is selected.
Nov.22. President Kennedy is assassinated.
1964-
Jul.31. Ranger 7 transmits the first close range images of the Moon.
Oct.31. Astronaut Theodore Freeman dies in a plane crash.
1965-
Mar.18. Alexei Leonov spends 12 minutes outside of his Voskhod spacecraft performing the first spacewalk.
Mar.23.Gus Grissom and John Young fly the first manned Gemini spacecraft.
Jun.3. Ed White performs America's first spacewalk. Jim McDivitt remains in the Gemini capsule.
USSR
USA
Timeline cont.
Jul.14. Mariner 4 returns close ranger images of Mars.
Nov.16. Venus 3 is launched. It becomes the first man made object to impact Venus on March 1, 1966.
Dec.4. Frank Borman and James Lovell begin a two week stay in Earth orbit aboard Gemini 7.
Dec.15. Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford, in their Gemini 6 spacecraft, make the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7.
1966
-
Feb.3. Luna 9 becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon.
Feb.28. Astronauts Charles Bassett and Elliott See die when their plane crashes in bad weather.
April.3. Luna 10 becomes the first satellite to orbit the Moon.
Jun.2. Surveyor 1 soft-lands on the Moon.
Aug.14. Lunar Orbiter 1 enters orbit around the Moon and takes the first picture of the Earth from that distance.
Timeline cont.
Timeline cont.
Nov.11. Gemini 12, the last flight of the Gemini Program, launches with James Lovell and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin aboard.
1967-
Jan.27. Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee are killed when a fire ignites in their Apollo 1 capsule while performing a test on the launch pad.
April.24. Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov is killed when the parachutes of his Soyuz 1 capsule fail to open properly following re-entry.
Jun.6. Astronaut Edward Givens is killed in an automobile accident.
Oct.5. Astronaut Clifton Williams is killed in a plane crash.
Oct.18. Venera 4 transmits data about the atmosphere of Venus.
1968
- Mar.27. Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, dies in a plane crash.
Sept.15. Zond 5 is launched. It carried a biological payload (including two turtles) around the Moon and returned to Earth six days later.
Oct.11. The crew of Apollo 7 begin a 10 day mission to study the new spacecraft.
Dec.21. Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders begin the first manned journey from the Earth to the Moon. On Christmas Eve they take turns reading Genesis in a broadcast heard around the world.
1969-

Jan.16. Soyuz 4 & 5 perform the first Soviet spacecraft docking.
Jul.20. Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon while crew mate Michael Collins orbits around the Moon alone.
Nov.19. Pete Conrad and Alan Bean perform the first precision lunar landing, touching down just 600 feet from the Surveyor 3 probe that arrived two years earlier.
Primary source #1
Tittle; Americans in space
Source; http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Space-Program.aspx
How does this source help you understand the topic? ( 1 paragraph)
This source helped me understand the topic better because it explained what really went down in the 1960's with JFK. He had asked for 7 billion to more than 9 billion dollars for the space programming. His understanding was the need to restore America's confidence and intended not only to match the Soviets, but surpass them. JFK once said in this article "this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before the decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth."
Tittle; Correspondence between JFK and LBJ on the space program
Source; http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/6XnAYXEkkkSMLfp7ic_o-Q.aspx
How does this source help you understand the topic? ( 1 paragraph)
The image shows 1961 correspondence between President Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon Johnson on the state of the nation’s space program.
This source helped me better understand JFK and Vice President LBJ point of view on the Space Race. Also their views on how they wanted everything to go. The questions that they had made me better understand how eager they really wanted to win and how important it was. It also showed me President Kennedy's regards towards the space race.
Tittle; Space Program Progress Memo
Source; http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/7WOiWcudTkOAVpkCA19_Ig.aspx
How does this source help you understand the topic? ( 1 paragraph)
The image's show Vice President Johnson respond to President Kennedy's questions regarding the progress of the space program. So it helped me better understand the answers to the questions that John F. Kennedy had. These pictures also helped me get a better understanding of the
space race and what concerns the presidents had.
Primary source #2
Primary source #3
Implications of event ( 1 paragraph. )
Facts
- The Russians called their space pilots cosmonauts meaning “ sailors of the universe “. The americans were called astronauts meaning “ star sailors “.
- Before Kennedy was assassinated, the russians and the americans were discussing working together to put a man on the moon. After he was killed, the russians backed off the joint venture.
- The US would likely have had the first satellite in orbit if they had been allowed to use military rockets from the start. However, Eisenhower was worried he would be called a warmonger if he used military rockets for space. He told the scientists they must use research rockets instead.
- The space race was not a long series of successes. Both sides had plenty of failures including crashes and explosions that resulted in the death of several astronauts.

Neil Armstrong
Sputnik
Gemini
Sources
http://www.thespacerace.com/timeline/

http://www.ducksters.com/history/cold_war/space_race.php

http://www.history.com/topics/space-race

http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/

http://www.ducksters.com/biography/explorers/neil_armstrong.php

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1957-001B
Kimberly Acevedo
John Glenn
Image #1
Image #2
Image #3
Image #4
Image #5
Image #6
The space race was a turning point for the history of the United States, it showed that the American people that if they unite and work their hardest for a common goal, they can achieve any goal they set for themselves. Many people said that 7-9 billion dollars was an insane amount of money to spend on space exploration at the time, which may be true, but an incredible amount of information was discovered. The soviets started with a substantial lead, but Americans worked hard to make up for the lost time. Within two achievements we were back to being very close with the Soviet Union and eventually surpassing them. The space race showed Americans can accomplish anything if we work together, and nothing is impossible. Just like many people thought that sending a man to the moon within the decade was an impossible goal, and at the time it did seem impossible, but we accomplished it.
Neil Armstrong was an Astronaut who was born on August 5, 1930 in Wapakoneta, Ohio. He was known as the first man to walk on the Moon. Besides being the first man to walk on the moon he also participated in famous and important trips like the Gemini 8 which was his first trip into space as an astronaut. He was the command pilot of the space capsule and piloted the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. He also participated on the Apollo 11 which was when he became the first man on the moon. His famous words upon being the first man on the Moon were "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind". After the Apollo 11 flight, Neil held many positions with NASA. He also worked as a professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Cincinnati.
Sputnik 1
was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on October 4, 1957. It was a 58 cm diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. Sputnik 1 is known as the most famous in the series. It was Launched from a secret rocket base in the Ural Mountains in Soviet central Asia.
Sputnik 2
was launched into orbit a month later on November 3, 1957. It was a much larger satellite, weighing 508 kilograms (1,120 pounds), and contained the first living creature to be orbited, a dog named Laika. The dog, its capsule, and the upper part of the rocket that launched it remained attached in space for 103 days before burning up after making 2,370 orbits.
However, there was only enough oxygen, food, and water to keep Laika alive for a week. There were no provisions to either save the dog or return its capsule to Earth.
Gemini was an early NASA human spaceflight program. Gemini helped NASA get ready for the Apollo moon landings. Ten crews flew missions on the two- man Gemini spacecraft. The Gemini missions were flown in 1965 and 1966. They flew between the Mercury and Apollo programs.
John Herschel Glenn, Jr., is a former Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States senator.
On Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn rode the Friendship 7 capsule into space, the first time an American orbited the Earth. This capsule was part of the space race, as John Herschel Glenn played a big part with the capsule.
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