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Administrative history of the European Union

A short presentation of the history of the European Union with an emphasis on the development of its administration
by

Dimiter Toshkov

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Administrative history of the European Union

(Administrative) History of the European Union
9 May 1950
The Schuman Declaration
Proposes to pool
coal
and
steel
Why coal
and steel?
Important to make armaments
Present in the contested Ruhr region
Base for industrial development
Proposes a High Authority to manage the sectors
Long-term objective to ensure peace through
co-operation between France and Germany
9 May 1945
German armed forces capitulation
(Victory day in Russia)
WORLD WAR II
United States of Europe
The Hague Congress of Europe
idealistic
pragmatic
1951
Treaty of Paris
European Coal and Steel Community
High Authority, Council of Ministers,
Common Assembly, Court of Justice
European Defense Community
signed (1952) but never ratified
1957
Treaties of Rome
European Economic Community
European Atomic Energy Community
Commission, Council of Ministers,
Common Assembly, Court of Justice
1967
Merger Treaty
Still
three
separate communities, but
only
one set
of institutions!
1979
First elections of the Parliament
UK, Ireland and
Denmark (Norway)
1962 Application
Accession 1973
The empty chair crisis and the
Luxembourg compromise
de facto veto power for each state (1966)
Charles De Gaulle boycotts the European institutions (1965)
1986
Single European Act
set a goal to complete the common market
increased the use of qualified majority voting (QMV)
gave the Parliament a bit more influence
Jacques Delors
President of the Commission (1985-1994)
Greece (1981),
Portugal and Spain (1986)
1992
Maastricht Treaty
The European
Union
is born
Two new
pillars
- CFSP and JHA
common foreign and security policy
justice and home affairs
ECSC
EEC
Euroatom
CFSP
JHA
European Union
supranational
intergovernmental
1997
Treaty of Amsterdam
More powers for the Parliament
Schengen co-operation included (border controls)
Reform of JHA
2001
Treaty of Nice
Institutional reforms
(preparation for Enlargement)
Austria, Finland,
Sweden, (Norway) (1995)
2007/9
Treaty of Lisbon
Further extension of the use of QMV
Increased role for the Parliament
A single legal personality (no pillars and communities)
Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia (2004)
Bulgaria and Romania (2007)
Croatia (2013)
The EU Civil service
The Commission
Consultative bodies to the Commission
(national experts mostly)
Working groups for the
Council of Ministers
Agencies
more than an international secretariat,
less than a national bureaucracy
The early High Authority: first president - Jean Monnet
Small, non-hierarchical, informal body
“If one day there are more than 200 of us we would have failed!”
A different administrative tradition: Walter Hallstein, president of the EEC Commission (1958-1967) new style, more
formal
, more
hierarchical
, more
legalistic
Now
- still, a relatively small administration
Strong
sectoral
specialization (Directorate-General, DG)
No
national
quotas
in principle but in practice generally proportional
In principle
merit-based entry and promotion
, no national or party considerations,
but

The EU is mostly a regulatory organization

Very little re-distributive capacity

No protection (internal and external)

Influence through the creation of rights and rules
C o n c l u s i o n s
The progress of European integration has been uneven
The EU has a complex and exciting civil service
Germany has coal, France has steel mills
Millions of refugees
Poverty, GDP down 70(!)%
Destruction
Marshall Plan (1948)
To understand the EU one needs to know its roots
European Constitution
defeated in 2005
Full transcript