When an outlier(s) skews the mean  making it no longer "typical" of the scores
Descriptive Research
Some
descriptive research methods (
ex.
surveys) can be
generalized
CANNOT
prove cause and effect
Naturalistic Observation
Form of
descriptive research 
study of animal or human behavior in
natural settings
rather than the laboratory
When observer knows the
goals of the study
and allows this knowledge to
influence their observations
Form of
descriptive research
 study of an individual to
describe
their situation with as much information as possible
Steps to Correlational Research
Create
Operational Definitions
Scatter Plots
relationship
norelationship
Measures strength of a relationship between two variables
(ranges from
1.0
to
+1.0
)
WHY IS CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION?
Independent and Dependent Variables
Variable
manipulated/changed
by experimenter
Design
Experimental and Control Groups
Experimental Group
The group
subjected to a change
in the independent variable
The group
NOT
subjected to a change in the independent variable
Control Group
Placebo Effect
Experimental results
caused
by expectations alone
ex.
no sugar given
Random Assignment
Randomly
assign
participants to either your control or experimental groups.
Single and Double Blind Procedure
Single Blind Procedure
Only
the participant is
unaware
of the group they are in
Both
the participant and the researcher are
unaware
of the group they are in
Descriptive Statistics
Form of statistics used to describe or summarize the results
Central Tendency
Mode
Mean
Median
Most frequently occurring score
Average of the scores
Middle score in a distribution
Range
Standard Deviation
Difference between lowest and highest scores
15

3
= 12
measure of how much scores
vary
from the mean
Inferential Statistics
Used AFTER an experiment to form
conclusions
about the
EFFECT
of the
independent
variable on changes in the
dependent
variable
APA Ethical Guidelines
Goals:
Describe descriptive research studies with regard to purpose, strengths and weaknesses by taking into account different types (case studies, naturalistic observation and surveys)
random sampling, wordingeffect, replication, generalization and applicable biases (ex. social desirability effect, response bias, sampling bias).
Essential Task 21:
Essential Task 22:
Essential Task 23:
Essential Task 24:
Essential Task 25:
Essential Task 26:
Describe correlational research study with regard to purpose, strengths,
and weaknesses by taking into account illusory correlations, operational definitions, random sampling, correlational coefficient, and scatterplots.
Apply basic statistical concepts to explain experimental research findings using: Inferential Statistics: Statistical significance (ttest and pvalue)
Describe experimental research design with regard to purpose, strengths, and weaknesses
by taking into account operational definitions, independent/dependent variables, confounding variables, control/experimental groups, random assignment of participants, single/double blind procedures, and applicable biases.
Apply basic statistical concepts to explain research findings using descriptive statistics:
central tendency (mean, median, mode, skewed distributions),
variance
(range, standard deviation, and normal distributions).
Identify the APA ethical guidelines, such as debriefing and informed consent, and identify how they inform and constrain research practices.
Unit 2:
Research Methods
Descriptive Research
Correlational Research
Experimental Research
Types of Descriptive Research
Naturalistic Observation
Case Study
Survey
Strengths
Weaknesses
Methods
Use Stats
Correlation Coefficient
CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION
Methods
Set up
Variables
Randomly Assign
Participants
Use
Single/Double Blind Procedure
Apply
Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Central Tendency
Variance
Types of Research Methods
What:
Research Methods Foundational Terms
What:
Case Study
Strengths
Weaknesses
What:
Indepth
UNIQUE
situations
Survey
Strengths
Weaknesses
What:
CAN
be generalized IF
randomly selected
Research Method Foundational Term
random selection/sampling
Form of research with the purpose of describing what is going on
Example:
"What are the eating habits of ARHS students?"
Strengths
Weaknesses
Some
descriptive research methods can be done quickly
Generalization
What:
Replication
Demo:
Naturalistic Observation and Observer Bias
Conclusion:
D
Volunteers conducted a naturalistic observation of the students in the classroom  though with
observer bias
What:
Observer Bias
What:
Repeating a study (with
SAME
methods) but different subjects/experimenters
MUST
be able to
REPLICATE
in order to
GENERALIZE
findings
Applying findings to
new
situations or subjects
More likely with
UNIQUE
individual characteristics
Observer bias
Can not
replicate
Can not
generalize 
one case could mislead
Form of
descriptive research
 use of carefully worded questionnaires/interviews given to a (large) group of people
Fast/cheap
What:
Step
used during
s
urveys  each member of a
population
is given the
same odds
of being selected to respond
ex.
ABC order list of names
randomly with number generator
M
S
for
S
urvey
S
for
S
ampling/
S
election
Population
(all of ARHS)
Sample
(determined with random number generator)
When wording
changes
the results of survey
(although same question is being asked)
Demo:
Surveys and Wording Effect
D
What:
Social Desirability Effect
Wording Effect
What:
When asked directly about a sensitive subject  we may ALTER our answer to what we think is
SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE
Time consuming
Easy to
replicate
More natural than if they were in the lab
Can not
replicate
Can not
generalize
Observer bias
WITHOUT
random selection
Sampling Bias
Wording Effect
Social Desirability Effect
(unrepresentative results)
Correlational Research
Allows you to make
PREDICTIONS
for future research
What:
Form of research with the purpose of showing the
relationship
between two variables and making
predictions
Strengths
Weaknesses
CORRELATION
IS NOT
CAUSATION
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Correlation
does
NOT
prove cause/effect
Curiosity about the world
Now we have an idea what is going on 
without
manipulating anything
Hypothesis creation
2 variables
"Do the variables vary together?"
Select two
variables
1
(
ex.
height, weight, happiness, salary, IQ, etc.)
2
"
Does
happiness
vary
with
salary?"
What:
EXACT
description of how to derive at the
VALUE
you are measuring
(
characteristics
and
HOW
to measure the
characteristics
)
Examples:
Height:
Inches  without shoes
Salary:
Average weekly earning
without bonuses/benefits
Happiness... stress...
3
Collect
randomly selected/sampled
data
What:
4
Graph with points comprised by values of two variables  amount of scatter shows strength of relationship
What:
r
=
+
0.70
+
1.0
0.0

.50
+
.50
Strength of the Relationship
Perfect
Moderate
None
Moderate
Perfect
Strong
(this is the test grade vs. AP Exam correlation coefficient)
r
=

0.97
VERY Strong

1.0
r
=
+
0.05
VERY Weak
The
CLOSER
to
1
OR
+1
the
stronger
the correlation
.99
is a stronger correlation than
+.98
The AP Exam LOVES to ask this.
Positive Correlation
Negative Correlation
+
.97
+
.14
Variable 1
Variable 2
Variable 1
Variable 2
(SelfEsteem)
(Depression)
(Stamp Price)
(Year)

.
92
Low selfesteem and depression are strongly correlated but...
Does ice cream
CAUSE
shark attacks?
NO
Ice cream sales
and
shark attacks
on swimmers are
correlated
Third Variable:
TEMPERATURE?
(beach)
Was there a strong relationship?
Time to make a prediction and consider conducting an experiment
After Experiment
Experimental Research
The
ONE
and
ONLY
way to
PROVE
that one variable
CAUSES
a change in another
What:
Form of research with the purpose of establishing
cause and effect
between two variables
Strengths
Weaknesses
"Does X cause a change in Y?"
Confounding Variables
Experimenter bias
Experimental Research Foundation Terms
American Psychological Association
Confounding Variable
What:
Hypothesis:
Independent Variable
What:
If
a child consumes sugar
then
there will be an increase in hyperactivity.
Variable the experimenter
measures
to see if the independent variable resulted in a CHANGE
Dependent Variable
Demo:
Experimenter Bias
Conclusion:
D
My preconceived conclusions about the study resulted in an experimenter bias and the creation of confounding variables (
ex.
type of chair)
What:
M
Tip:
A hypothesis in this class will be presented as an
"
If
...
then
"
statement
If
a child consumes
sugar
then
there will be an increase in
hyperactivity
.
FOLLOWS
"IF"

Independent
FOLLOWS
"THEN"
 Dependent
1
Select
operationally defined
independent
and
dependent
variables
What:
ex.
participants
GIVEN
sugar
If
a child consumes sugar
then
there will be an increase in hyperactivity.
What:
ex.
participants
GIVEN
a
PLACEBO
sugar OR nothing at all
2
3
What:
Experimental Group
Control Group
ex.
alphabetical list  random
GROUP
generator
Why:
4
What:
Double Blind Procedure
What:
Why?
Variables that a researcher
FAILS
to control
OR
eliminate
Experimenter Bias
Errors in a research study due to the prior beliefs of the experimenter
What:
ex.
my clear bias in the previous demo
Helps
REDUCE
c
on
founding variables/experimenter bias
WHY
experimental research
PROVES
causation
and
correlational does
NOT
M
AFTER you have participants  the next step is to put them into groups...
or in the other words  put their
into groups
random
ass
ignment
Make your results a
CON
CON
founding Variable
M
Reduces
BOTH
experimenter bias
AND
placebo effect 
essential
when testing new drug treatment
5
What:
Representative
Population
(Random) Selection
Can we make conclusions?
Inferential Statistics
ttest and pvalue
What:
A calculation conducted
after
an experiment to determine
IF
the results were
CAUSED
by manipulating the independent variable
OR
by dumb luck
you will
NEVER
be asked to calculate this
BUT
They
LOVE
asking what the pvalue means
a
ttest
provides the
pvalue
1.00
.50
DUMB LUCK
.051
.05
Statistical Significance
What:
When
p
is 5% and below
... the difference found in the experiment was
REAL
and
NOT
by chance
IF
a pvalue is
5% AND BELOW (.05)
 the results were
STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT
In a study of power and selfimage, participants were not told the true purpose of the study; instead, they believed they were participating in a business simulation. Researchers randomly assigned participants to a high power (n = 44) or lowpower (n = 44) condition. In the highpower condition, participants recalled a time when they had power over others, and in the lowpower condition, they recalled a time when others had power over them. Participants were asked to adjust the height (in centimeters) of an electronic graphical image (an avatar) of themselves to reflect their personal appearance.
Results indicated a statistically significant difference in participants’ perceptions of their own height across the two conditions.
Participants in the highpower condition created taller selfimages (mean = 6.0, standard deviation = 1.5) than participants in the lowpower condition (mean = 4.0, standard deviation = 1.0).
AP Psychology FRQ  2014
(Mean: 3.42 of 7)
 Describe the levels of the
independent variable.
 Describe how the researchers measured the
dependent variable
.
 Create a
bar graph
illustrating the results of the study. Correctly
label
each axis.
 Explain why the researchers can conclude that there is a
causeandeffect
relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
 Explain what statistical significance means in the context of the study.
 Explain why
debriefing
would be necessary in the study.
Scored
This would NOT be enough  when on to SPECIFY what that means
Scored
"Participants in the highpower condition created taller selfimages."
Unlike 2015  this year actually HAD a difference in results
(6 vs. 4)
so the graphs needed to differ
Scored:
Did NOT Score:
As we know 
only way
to prove causeandeffect
Scored:
Statistical significance is shown by the pvalue If
BELOW 5%
(.05)  the experiment
WAS
statistically significant and
NOT due to chance
Scored:
Always connecting back to the the prompt
2007 AP Exam
Found statistically significant results?
Other Stats: Descriptive
What:
Placebo
10 mg
100 mg
Activity
Treatment
PreTreatment
PostTreatment
What:
Way of checking what is average/typical
3 Forms
Skewed Distribution
What:
ex.
adding Tom Brady to the mean income of those in this classroom would result in a
positive skew
l
E
ft
n
E
gative skew
r
I
ght
pos
I
tive skew
M
When distribution is skewed:
MEDIAN
is used to describe central tendency
Positive Skew
What:
15
12
12
8
5
3
range
What:
Small
Standard Deviation =
Scores
tend to be similar
to one another
(often displayed on a BAR GRAPH)
Normal Distribution (Bell) Curve
What:
Distribution curve where the mean, median and mode are all the same
ex.
intelligence tests are
designed for results to be
normally distributed
Normal distribution curves always look like this:
You will need to memorize
".2, 2, 13 , 34"
For baseball fans:
"little" Jeter, "big" Jeter, ARod and Ortiz
.02%
.02%
.2 2 13 34
For nonbaseball fans:
Going backwards
"4, 3, 1... you forgot about the deuces!"
Step One:
Input Mean
.02%
.02%
100
High point represents the
MEAN
Example:
Mean = 100
Step Two:
Input Standard Deviation
.2%
.2%
100
Represent
"standard deviations above/below the mean"
When given the SD (ex. SD = 15)
0
1
2
3
1
2
3
Add 15
each SD to the right and
subtract 15
each SD to the left
100
115
130
145
85
70
55
100 + 1 SD (15)
115 + 1 SD (15)
130 + 1 SD (15)
100  1 SD (15)
85  1 SD (15)
70  1 SD (15)
100
115
130
145
85
70
55
100 + 1 SD (15)
115 + 1 SD (15)
130 + 1 SD (15)
100  1 SD (15)
85  1 SD (15)
70  1 SD (15)
Step 3:
Using the Curve
0
1
2
3
1
2
3
100
115
85
100 + 1 SD (15)
100  1 SD (15)
0
1
1
34 +34 =
68%
Answer
115
85
100 + 1 SD (15)
100  1 SD (15)
0
1
1
96
Answer
96
115
85
100
1
1
Mean
= 100
SD
= 15
Which of the following scores is
within one standard deviation
of the mean?
(A) 132
(B) 77
(C) 96
(D) 62
(E) 140
Answer:
96
What percentage of scores fall between 115 and 85?
What percentage of scores fall two standard deviations above and two standard deviation below the mean?
70
130
0
2
2
13 + 34 +34 + 13 =
95
Answer
The answer on the AP Exam will be 95  we remove the decimals for ease
For example
 adding 10 points to
EVERY
score wouldn't change this
(though it would change ALL central tendencies )
APA Ethical Guidelines
What:
Still acting
"hyper"
Highlights:
informed consent
What:
confidentiality 
unless agreed upon in advance
debriefing
What:
In
dependent is what you put
"IN"
the cup
What:
Largest scientific/professional organization of psychologists
Original President:
M
Academic research must be approved by APA ethics board
(based on APA Ethical Guidelines)
To Note:
Percentiles
.2%
.2%
If you ever see the term "percentile" regarding this curve  they are just referencing the %'s in each deviation
50th percentile
84th percentile
100th percentile
(100%)
(50%)
(5.1%)
(5%)
Describing the research
AND
obtaining the subjects' consent based on an understanding of the project's methods and goals 
IF
possible
(deception is allowed)
Giving participants a complete explanation of the study
after
the study is completed (ex. if deception was used)
Studying Clive Wearing is an example of a case study
15 Scale
Illusory Correlation
What:
Believing there is a relationship between two variables  when there is not
Demo:
Surveys and Social Desirability
D
Demo:
Random Selection/Sampling
D
Conclusion:
Samples randomly selected from your population (your full pile of cards) could be
generalized
The
"Original G"

G.
Stanley Hall
NonResponse Bias
(some won't respond  unrepresentative results)
aka.
Response Bias
Correlation Research Follow Up
Looking through the work of the class, list the variables for...
1)
At least one STRONG
positive correlation
2)
3)
Identify the
STRONGEST
correlation in the class
At least one WEAK
positive correlation
At least one WEAK
negative correlation
At least one STRONG
negative correlation
4)
5)
Margaret
F
loy
W
ashburn
F
irst
W
oman w/ PhD
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Unit 2: Research Methods
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