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Prototypes & Stereotypes

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by

Mandeep Mann

on 28 March 2014

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Transcript of Prototypes & Stereotypes

Prototypes & Stereotypes
EXTENSION
•Extension of a predicate = group of all individuals(characteristics) to which that predicate can apply

PROTOTYPE
=usually the most typical member of its extension
STEREOTYPE
Both involve a
description of typical characteristics
Conclusion
Stereotypes are expressions of things learned second hand
Confusion between the two
Nadia Iqbal
Mandeep Mann

..whats the difference?
Breakdown of semantic concepts
RECAP
SENSE=
The sense of an expression is its place in a system of semantic relationships with other expressions in the language. For example bank/bank

REFERENCE=
The referent of an expression is often a thing or a person in the world
•Potentially be referred to using an expression whose main element is that predicate..

For example;
Extension of WINDOW= all windows in the world
Extension of DOG= all dogs in world
Extension of RED= all things red

• Independent of any particular occasion of utterance (like sense)
• Connects the
linguistic unit
to
non-linguistic
EXTENSION & SENSE
Knowledge of sense provides an idea of its extension
EXTENSION & REFERENCE
The referent = the individual member of the extension
Context can usually help..
EVALUATING THE EXTENSION THEORY
(-) Too ambiguous
Prototype of a predicate
is an object that is held to be very
typical
of the kind of object being
referred

to
For EXAMPLE:
When thinking of a BIRD we think PIGEON not OSTRICH
When thinking of FURNITURE we think TABLE/CHAIR not LAMP
Stereotypes= abstract
Prototypes= the actual thing
CONCEPT
= mental construction that stands in relation to a clear category of things
The prototype of a tree is the actual tree
The stereotype of a tree the characteristics we imagine it to be
FRAMES (Filmore 1982)
Speakers have theories about the world based on
experience
For example; BACHELOR

..we don't think of The Pope
1. Codification of experience
2. Communication
Speakers may know a stereotype without even encountering the predicate..
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