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Prototypes & Stereotypes
Transcript of Prototypes & Stereotypes
•Extension of a predicate = group of all individuals(characteristics) to which that predicate can apply
=usually the most typical member of its extension
Both involve a
description of typical characteristics
Stereotypes are expressions of things learned second hand
Confusion between the two
..whats the difference?
Breakdown of semantic concepts
The sense of an expression is its place in a system of semantic relationships with other expressions in the language. For example bank/bank
The referent of an expression is often a thing or a person in the world
•Potentially be referred to using an expression whose main element is that predicate..
Extension of WINDOW= all windows in the world
Extension of DOG= all dogs in world
Extension of RED= all things red
• Independent of any particular occasion of utterance (like sense)
• Connects the
EXTENSION & SENSE
Knowledge of sense provides an idea of its extension
EXTENSION & REFERENCE
The referent = the individual member of the extension
Context can usually help..
EVALUATING THE EXTENSION THEORY
(-) Too ambiguous
Prototype of a predicate
is an object that is held to be very
of the kind of object being
When thinking of a BIRD we think PIGEON not OSTRICH
When thinking of FURNITURE we think TABLE/CHAIR not LAMP
Prototypes= the actual thing
= mental construction that stands in relation to a clear category of things
The prototype of a tree is the actual tree
The stereotype of a tree the characteristics we imagine it to be
FRAMES (Filmore 1982)
Speakers have theories about the world based on
For example; BACHELOR
..we don't think of The Pope
1. Codification of experience
Speakers may know a stereotype without even encountering the predicate..