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DD150 – Design Basics

Unit 2 – Topic 8-9-10
by

Vivianne Jimenez

on 13 October 2014

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Transcript of DD150 – Design Basics

The following will be discussed about posters
HISTORY
THE PURPOSE
OF POSTERS

Posters
INTEGRATION OF CONCEPT WITH VISUAL ELEMENTS
San Francisco
Budapest
Important
Details
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
(cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr
Stockholm
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
The purpose of posters
The history of poster design
Posters as visual communication
Posters as objects of art
Posters have the ability, when effectively
designed, to be more stimulating than any other graphic design application. If the proper balance of words and visual elements exists in a poster, then it then has the opportunity to become more than just a passing gaze of visual communication, but instead be a source of inspiration to be visited again and again just for the simple enjoyment of the thoughts it provokes and the ideas it causes you to contemplate. While technology is always advancing and we are constantly surrounded by 3D animations and Flash graphics trying to catch our eye, it is important to remember the effect that applications such as posters provide. A flat, twodimensional form of visual communication can still capture not only our eyes, but also
our imaginations.
Posters, like any form of advertising, serve one main purpose: communicating a message. This message could be anything from an advertisement of a product, a promotion for a concert, or even a political statement. The most important thing to keep in mind when developing and designing a poster is that your design must be engaging.
Your audience is not going to be sitting at a desk and staring at your poster. They are going to see it while driving, riding, or walking by so you have to be able to get someone’s attention while they’re on the move. Also, keep in mind that posters are most likely going to be on display in public areas where there are many other visual distractions for your audience. You have to be sure that your poster jumps out at them and catches their eyes more than any other person or thing in that area.
Posters today may be used to advertise everything from public events to protest
causes, but there was a time when posters were actually meant to portray fleeting bits of information such as current news and events. These original applications that led to the posters of today were called broadsides.
*
A broadside, or broadsheet, is a large sheet of paper, typically printed on one side. After the invention of movable type came to Europe, broadsides became an efficient way to make an announcement. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, European printers began finding work in the American colonies and brought the broadsides with them. By the late nineteenth century such
technological advances in both America and Europe, such as color lithography, would soon lead to the mesmerizing appeal of colored posters eclipsing the outdated form of communications that was broadsides.
Posters As Art Objexts
Assets
map
details
doodles
outlook
Impact a poster can have
Ability of posters to express individuality
The effect of design content on design decisions
The importance of type and visual balance in a successful design
Audience interpretation of different aspects of your poster
The value of your audience’s ability to freely interpret your design
A Poster is a two-dimensional, single page format used to inform and to persuade. The information the poster is portraying could include dates of events, information or data, or even details of an offer the client would like the public to know about. As the graphic designer assigned to create these posters it is your job to promote the information and client in the most visually attractive way in order to persuade an audience. Part of the
persuasion involved with posters is simply in the production of the poster itself. Posters are usually produced in large quantities and sent out to cover a large target area. This not only allows you to attract the attention of multiple audiences, but also allows you to reinforce your message to a single person who will see your poster multiple times in
multiple locations.
Posters have taken on quite a large role in the modern world. They have now
progressed beyond just simply being an application for advertising, but now they are
also even considered art in many cases. Many times posters will actually be stolen from
the walls they are tacked to because someone appreciates the design so much that
they want to take it home and tack it up on their own wall. There are also many stores
now that specialize in selling vintage posters from the early and mid-nineteen hundreds
as collectible pieces of art.
Posters As Expressions
of Individuality
When posters branched out from simple informative broadsides and entered the creative realm that they are in today they not only became an integral part of advertising, but they also became a way for groups to get out a message about a cause, or to promote a social issue.

By hanging these types of posters in their homes, people across the globe found a new way to express themselves and can now feel a more direct link to the causes they support.
Posters have also branched into modern pop-culture as well. You would be hardpressed to find a record store that didn’t also now have a section full of posters for the musical acts. The same also holds true for the film industry. Not long ago movie posters were only used to promote the currently playing movies at the theatres, but now you can find those same movie posters for sale at your local video retailer. These two highly influential aspects of pop-culture design have made a particularly strong impact on the youth.
The Challenge of Posters
To understand the challenges facing a graphic designer while creating a poster design you must go back to the first step of the design process. You must research and discover the context and audience of your project. In the case of a poster you need to take into consideration that this will most likely be viewed from a distance and it will be in a public place filled with many other visual distractions. These are some of the most significant challenges facing the graphic designer.
While posters may have survived the test of time so far, there is no denying that they have more competition now than ever before. Some of the opposition that the poster must deal with in current times includes other posters, billboards, neon signs, video walls, banners and murals. To help you visualize the challenge facing a poster for gaining recognition, think of Times Square in New York City. Think of all of the buildings covered in twenty-story high billboards and huge blinking and moving signs. Now think about a poster on the ground level of one of those buildings. That poster would have to have quite the visual appeal and eye-catching design in order to pull the audience’s gaze away from all of the other distractions. There are two ways to accomplish this goal.
The first is that you could create a poster so visually appealing that it has the ability to stand on its own and gain the attention of the audience. The other way you could accomplish this is by creating a series of posters, therefore not limiting yourself to maintain all of the audience’s attention with one design.
Posters As Art Objexts
A great example of overcoming these challenges by making a piece that stands on its
own is the poster for La Boheme, a musical play appearing on Broadway. In this design the artist found a way to bring the audience even closer to the poster by actually including them in the poster with this poster inside of a poster technique.
Using this technique the graphic designer not only shows how romantic the play is with the two actors in the poster, but also with the audience shown in front of the poster embracing each other. This poster would definitely stand out in the midst of New York City.
Source:
Poster: La Boheme
Design Studio: SpotCo, New York, NY
Photographer: Douglas Kirkland
Designers: Vinny Sainato and Mary Littell
The California College of Arts & Crafts (CCAC) Institute garnered just as successful results by taking the other approach to their poster design. They created a series of nostalgic black and white posters and literally wallpapered the entire Mission Mall in order to create a barricade-like effect. They quite literally made it nearly impossible not to see their posters. This not only caught the audience’s eye, but it maintained their attention.
Source:
Posters: Fabrice Hybert, Spaced Out, and Big Soft Orange
Design Firm: Morla Design, San Francisco, CA
Art Director: Jennifer Morla
Client: California College of Arts & Crafts
While using good techniques plays a large role in the success of your poster design there are still some fundamental rules that must be followed for your design to be successful. As a graphic designer you need to understand the material you are trying to
represent, arrange your information so that it can be easily interpreted, and you need to not only grab the attention of your audience, but you need to maintain their attention long enough
As a graphic designer, not only in poster design, but in all projects you take on, your number one goal should be making an emotional connection with your audience.

This will not only make your design impressive, but it will also make it commanding. There is nothing more inspiring for a graphic designer than to create a design that leaves a lasting impression in someone and inspires or emotionally affects them in some way.
Going back to the basic concepts of all graphic design that you learned in previous topics,
the success of your poster design relies heavily on your ability to find the appropriate balance between type and visual elements.
It is your goal to get your type and visual elements to complement each other. You want the design to catch someone’s eye and then lead their focus to the type you are trying to promote.
INTERPRETATION OF POSTERS
As in every form of visual communication, when designing posters you have the ability
to leave a great deal of the meaning of your design up to your audience’s own interpretation and imagination. The ability to master this skill will actually have a great emphasis on the ability of your design to maintain the focus of your audience by provoking thought and intrigue in your design.
Having a firm understanding of scale can lend a great deal of support to a designer’s ability to capture an audience by fashioning false impressions of spatial depth and
producing dynamic and varied visuals. When you have the ability to approach a design
with a very unusual design concept then you have a better chance of capturing a more
imaginative design and overall feel for your project.
SUMMARY
In summary, we have discussed that posters, like any form of advertising, serve one
main purpose: communicating a message. The most important thing to keep in mind
when developing and designing posters is that your design must be engaging. Posters
have the ability, when effectively designed, to be more stimulating than any other
graphic design application. Posters have taken on quite a large role in the modern
world. They have now progressed beyond just simply being an application for
advertising, but now they are also even considered art in many cases. Posters have
also branched into modern pop-culture as well.
While posters may have survived the test of time so far, there is no denying that they
have more competition now than ever before. As a graphic designer, not only in poster
design, but in all projects you take on, your number one goal should be making an
emotional connection with your audience. The success of your poster design relies
heavily on your ability to find the appropriate balance between type and visual elements.
The ability to master the skill of capturing your audience’s imagination and causing them
to form their own interpretations will actually have a great emphasis on the ability of
your design to maintain the focus of your audience by provoking thought and intrigue in
your design.
Contrary to immediate thought, the company logo does not always need to be the main
focal point of your shopping bag design. In fact, it is often considered much more stylish
if the bag is not all about just showing the company name or logo. Here are some goals
and key points to keep in mind while designing a shopping bag:.
When coming up with your design concept you should be deciding the materials to be
used, the shape and size of the bag, and finally what is actually on the bag.
Many times
the design of the shopping bag will either be linked to an overall company identity
design or a current ad campaign the company is running.
It is important in these
situations to coordinate your entire design concept, including color palette, visuals, and
style, with the rest of the product line.
Design your bag to
function properly above all else
Consider all sides of the bag in
your design process
Stay relevant to any existing graphic
design material or identity system
Express the brand’s spirit
Think of the shopping bag as a mobile
display, like a miniature, moving billboard
Make the design so impactful that
people will want to carry it around
as a status symbol
*A book jacket is not only the cover or the front of the book but it is also the spine of the
book and the back of the book
. All three of these areas of the book need to work
together in a cohesive manner. In a book store the spine of the book is more often than
not the only part of the book that is visible. This means that the spine of the book needs
to be just as graphically appealing as the front of the book adding to the whole design
that makes up a book jacket.
SUMMARY
In summary, we have discussed that packaging design is a graphic design application which functions as packaging, but also attracts a consumer and presents information; it is a blend of two- and three-dimensional design, promotional design, information design,
and practicality. One of the most interesting and challenging aspects of packaging design is that any packaging contains several surfaces and none of those surfaces can be overlooked by the graphic designer during the design process. Packaging design may be a large part of brand identity and promotional design, but packaging design itself is actually a very specialized area of graphic design.

Similar to the idea of a poster, audio packaging holds a much greater meaning than just being an advertising tool. It has the ability to make that emotional connection with the audience that is so important. It is the duty of the graphic designer to convey the sensibility and voice of the recording artist in order to honor the existing fans and to hopefully draw new fans of a like mind in. While the CD booklet and cover are very important elements to the overall success of the audio packaging design, it is also very effective to use unique packaging materials.

While at first glance shopping bags may not seem like the most influential design application, the reality is actually just that. It may be easy to get carried away while designing shopping bags so you should always keep in mind that the shopping bag must not only be attractive, but it still has to hold things as well. When coming up with your design concept you should be deciding the materials to be used, the shape and size of the bag, and finally what is actually on the bag.
With the continued advancements in the online community involving the music industry, including everything from Napster and Kazaa to Itunes and Rhapsody, it has been long
rumored that the market for compact discs is being phased out. While this may be an exaggeration and we may still be years from this happening, one thing that this evolution has created is a heightened importance on the actual album artwork and
packaging. While downloading your music may be convenient, there is still plenty to be said about the experience of ripping open that new CD, popping it in your stereo, and flipping feverishly through the booklet as you listen to the album for the first time. While you may look at that website you are downloading from and admire the design quality,
you dissect a CD booklet, thriving to get every possible message from every page.
AUDIO/COMPACT DISC PACKAGING
SHOPPING BAGS
Front, Back, and Spine
It is still important to keep in mind as well that this CD cover will be sitting on a shelf at arecord store surrounded by hundreds of other CDs all fighting for the attention of the consumer. You also need to keep in mind that this CD may be sold online as well so your design should be just as effective being viewed on a computer screen as it is sitting on a shelf. Here are some key ideas to keep in mind when approaching the design of a CD cover:
Make it functional
Research materials and construction
Think green and try using only recycled materials and using ecologically minded design
Keep in mind that packaging is the blend of two- and three-dimensional design
Consider all sides of a package in your design
Keep both the brand and the audience in mind
Ensure that all information is easily accessible and understandable
Separate your design from the competition and create your own voice
Consider that there will be multiple copies on display together
Realize that it will likely be seen on screen for online shoppers and likely will be reduced in size
Packaging Design
The following will be
discussed about posters
Book Jackets & Magazine Covers
All Type
Typography used exclusively can still have very graphically persuasive results. When a
company’s budget doesn’t allow for purchasing the rights to images sometimes a cover
that only uses type is the only option a designer has. Sometimes the simplest designs
require the largest amount of creativity.
Type Plus Image
Making type and imagery work together cohesively can produce powerful results. Inexperienced designers often make the mistake of focusing all of their efforts on the imagery and merely throwing some text on the page. This makes the text look sloppy and out of place. If you pay attention to detail and carefully choose the font style, size,
and color of your text then you can really create something special.
Text-Driven Design

Text-driven covers work well when an author is well known or when a creative title of a book is supposed to stand out. When creating a text-driven cover your main focus should be on either the author’s name or on the title of the book rather than on the
imagery accompanying it.
Image-Driven Design
Most consumers are attracted to powerful imagery. An image-driven cover is a cover
where the background image is supposed to make a bigger visual impact than the text.
The image should be doing most of the work to attract the consumer. In some cases
when designing book covers you will be provided with images from the publisher but
often times you will have the task of finding or creating images on your own to
communicate the design concept of a cover.
Photography: custom or stock
Illustration: custom or stock
Graphics: custom or stock
Hybrid imagery
Many designers’ work is distinctive. Though the design is unique, each designer must
be able to find solutions to the common pitfalls that accompany creating a cover. You
need to be able to let your own design style shine through and stay true to the book and
to the author while at the same time including all of the content requirements.
Attract and intrigue readers
Express the essence of the editorial content
Be appropriate to the author and subject
Design the spine for readability and graphic impact
Consider placement of the publisher’s logo, bar code, and any other specific visual element
Treat the back cover and all of the panels as part of the whole design
If designing interior pages consider the relationship to the cover
A book jacket is not only the cover or the front of the book but it is also the spine of the
book and the back of the book. All three of these areas of the book need to work
together in a cohesive manner. In a book store the spine of the book is more often than
not the only part of the book that is visible. This means that the spine of the book needs
to be just as graphically appealing as the front of the book adding to the whole design
that makes up a book jacket.
The covers of magazines and books are all designed to be eye catching. The purpose
of these well designed covers is to convey an instant message to the consumer. The
consumer should be able to look at a cover and get a feeling of what that magazine or
book is all about whether they are seeing it in person, on the internet, or in a catalog.
Even something as minute as the spine of a book or a DVD cover is a big deal in the
world of graphic design because in certain settings that is the only part of the product
that the consumer might see.
For instance, the design of a book cover may influence your entire decision to purchase
that book. The cover should give you an idea of what the subject of the book is all about
as well as make the book seem intriguing enough to hold your attention. In designing
the cover of a book you need to keep some things in mind: sending a message to the
consumer about the book and displaying all of the publication information. Be sure to
keep your target audience in mind.
SUMMARY
In summary, we have discussed that the design of a book cover has a huge impact on a
consumer’s decision to purchase the book. Like a movie trailer, a book cover gives the
consumer insight as to what the book may be about. Like other graphic design pieces, a
book cover also contains a combination of image and text. When used exclusively, text
as a cover can still convey a strong message to the consumer. Text-driven covers
include imagery as well but the text is certainly the focal point. With an image-driven
cover the main visual impact is coming from the main image of the cover. However,
when imagery and text work together seamlessly the results can be amazing.

The whole design of a cover includes the design of the front, back, and spine of a book.
Templates have the ability to help book series achieve the cohesive design they require.
Special binding techniques such as using a slipcase can add another level to the visual
design of a cover.
The purpose of cover designs
Editorial and promotional design involvement in creating a cover
How the context of the cover will be viewed
The connection between the consumer and the design
 How imagery and typography convey a message
 The basic options a designer has when finding a design solution
 The value of the front, back, and spine of a book
 Why a series of books require unity in the covers
 The role templates play when designing a series
 The use of slipcase design
The Purpose of Covers
Much like the trailer for a film gives you insight as to what a movie might be about, the book cover is like a preview for a book. The cover of a book should create a healthy
amount of suspense as well as give you the appropriate information. Books are in a
constant competition with other books, especially when it comes to books that are
targeted towards the same audience. The design of the book jacket is a crucial part of
this competition.
Design Considerations
A book cover might contain print and imagery like most other graphic design pieces.
When looking at the cover of a book you should see the author’s name, the title of the book, maybe the title of the series the book belongs to if it applies, and sometimes the price of the book as well. Depending on your design concept, your strategy, and possibly whether the book belongs to a series or not, you may choose to use type and photography, type and illustration, type and graphics, or just type on its own to create the cover of a book.
Type and image should work together to convey the message and the feel of a book, magazine, CD or DVD in a complimentary manner. Covers should be an appropriate representation of the subject matter and it is crucial that you don’t lose focus of the message that you are trying to send to the consumer. Even with all of the content restrictions placed on cover designs you still have plenty of options and creative freedom in designing a cover.
Use of Type and Image
IMAGES CAN BE
Suggestive objectives:
Front, Back, and Spine
Designing for a Series
Templates
A series of books need to have a similar design so the consumer can recognize that they belong together. Having visual similarities like color, text and related imagery will help establish a series.
You might want to use a template when designing a series.
*
A
template
gives you structure to your design elements to create a cohesive look. With the use of a template the title of the book, the author’s name, and other elements can be placed in the same positions with only slight variations. When there is unity in the covers of the books in a series the consumer should have no problem identifying all of the books in the series. Although each cover in a series needs to have similar characteristics you must also make them visually related to the individual stories in the series. There should be some resemblance but they should not be identical to one another.

Also, in a series you might want to keep a certain level of consistency throughout, not only pertaining to the covers. If photographs or illustrations are used on the inside of one book then they should also be used on the insides of the other books in the series. In contrast, if one book in the series has text only then they should all only have text.
Slipcase Designs
Different book binding techniques can be used to make a book more individualistic.
Materials such as plastic, metal, or even screen-printing can be used when making a
slipcase. Slipcases can turn a book into a highly admired object. You might use a
slipcase when doing an art publication, a limited edition book, or a widely promoted
book. A book’s content should still be used to inspire the slipcase or any other special
binding used for the cover.
The purpose of packaging design
The form and function requirements in design
Design issues that commonly occur
Packaging design as a component of design identify
The collaborative effort of packaging design
Effective packaging design and the power to influence the consumer
Three goals of packaging design (enclose, inform, and persuade)
Different types of packaging
The connection between audio packaging and the consumer/viewer
Communicating feel and message by integrating type and visual elements
The shopping bag, functional object vs. design object
The following will be discussed about packaging design
Packaging design is possibly the most persuasive of all forms of graphic design. The main purpose of packaging design is quite simply to persuade you to make a purchase.
This application of design affects all of us on a near daily basis. If you were walking through a store and were trying to choose between two items, one with a simple and generic word on the box with no color, and another with a colorful and flashy box you would be much more inclined to purchase the item in the more impressive box. This item may not be the better of the two, but you want to purchase this one because it
appears to be more exclusive or special than the other one.
Packaging does not only affect your decision to buy a product the first time, but can also have a great impact on whether you continue to buy that product. You may get that flashy box home and suddenly realize that, while this box looks more impressive, you can’t figure out how to open it. In focusing on how the box looked, the company forgot to adhere to the functionality of the box and neglected to put a flap on the top to open the box. This type of design flaw can infuriate a customer and cause the customer to refuse to purchase the product again. Similarly, if a package is designed very efficiently and opens with hardly any effort then this could cause a consumer to be so overjoyed that they pledge to stick with that brand from that point on.
THE PURPOSE OF PACKAGING DESIGN
*Packaging design is a graphic design application which functions as packaging, but also attracts a consumer and presents information; it is a blend of two- and threedimensional design, promotional design, information design, and practicality.
One of the most interesting and challenging aspects of packaging design is that any packaging contains several surfaces and none of those surfaces can be overlooked by the graphic designer during the design process. While something such as the nutrition information
on a box of food may not play an integral part in the design of the box, people will still want to see that information so it must be placed somewhere that is easy for them to find.

Packaging design may be a large part of brand identity and promotional design, but packaging design itself is actually a very specialized area of graphic design. In order to take on this type of project a graphic designer needs to understand a range of manufacturing and technical issues. This includes knowing the products and the shape, size, dimensions, and material used in the package itself. Awareness and understanding of the materials is specifically important because this could range from everything from glass and metal to paper and plastic, all of which would require very different approaches to your design.
RELEVANCE &
EMOTIONAL CONNECTIONS
When consumers are deciding which products they are going to buy it is undeniable that at least some of the time that decision is going to be made by the consumers’ opinions of the package design. In fact, it is estimated that nearly seventy-five percent of
consumer decisions on which product to buy are made while standing in front of the rows of products on the store shelves. It is during these decision making sessions that the package designers prove their worth. The package designer must create an eyecatching design while maintaining brand identity and relevance to the product.
There are many points of relevance that must be considered depending on the product that the designer is creating packaging for. Often times the designer will find that there is mandatory information that must be included on the package such as ingredients or nutritional information on food products. Many times, one of the most important things to accomplish with your design is to properly convey information to your audience.
It is important that while doing this you maintain the proper balance of type and visual elements.
Another important design element to keep in mind when designing packages
for products such as food, toiletries, and beverages is color. When used to promote these types of products color has a very strong ability to subliminally link to key associations in the consumers mind. A designer’s use of color can ensure whether these are positive or negative associations, so the use of color should be carefully thought out depending on the product being packaged.
Similar to the idea of a poster,
audio packaging holds a much greater meaning than just being an advertising tool.
It had the ability to make that emotional connection with the
audience that is so important. This remains one of the most inspiring areas of graphic design in relation to self-expression.

Music often defines eras in time and when you
listen to that music you want to be a part of that era. Audio packaging plays a large role in making this ideal a reality.
Music has the ability to bring out the deepest and most raw emotions inside of a person.
People are usually very passionate about the music that they listen to and the artists they choose to support. It is the duty of the graphic designer to convey the sensibility
and voice of the recording artist in order to honor the existing fans and to hopefully draw new fans of a like mind in. Every artist has some unique quality or attribute that you must personify through your design.
MATERIALS, ENGINEERING, &
THE DESIGN CONCEPT
While the CD booklet and cover are very important elements to the overall success of the audio packaging design, it is also very effective to use unique packaging materials.
Sometimes these may just be something so imaginative and outside of the norm that it is meant to catch the eye of consumers and sometimes this could be a physical manifestation of a concept involved with the CD itself. An example of this type of unique design would be if you had an album titled “Hole in my Heart” and for the CD cover you used a picture of a heart and then had holes punched through the entire booklet to
physically represent the CD title.
While at first glance shopping bags may not seem like the most influential design
application, the reality is actually just that. Most people are likely to use a shopping bag
more than once. Some people may just do this because they are environmentally
conscious and others maybe because they liked the way the bag looked so they didn’t
want to get rid of it.
Right there you have just created a mobile marketing tool for the store.

It may be easy to get carried away while designing shopping bags so you should always
keep in mind that the shopping bag must not only be attractive, but it still has to hold
things as well. While shopping bags can come in all shapes and sizes and be
constructed from all sorts of materials it is important to be knowledgeable about the
products they will be used to carry and make sure that your design is relevant to those products.
The following will be discussed
THE PURPOSE AND VALUE OF ADVERTISING
Conventional &
Unconventional Advertising

INTEGRATION OF CONCEPT WITH VISUAL ELEMENTS
Advertising is a constantly evolving industry and companies are constantly trying to find new ways to introduce the public to their products or service, by using both conventional and unconventional methods. Advertising is a cause that is trying to create an effect, in most cases being that you purchase the product being advertised.
*By definition, an advertisement (ad) is a specific message constructed to inform, persuade, promote, provoke, or motivate people on behalf of a brand or group.

The term group here could be applied both to commercial industry and social cause/nonprofit organizations.
*An advertising campaign is a series of coordinated ads, in one or more media, that are based on a single, over-arching strategy or theme, and each individual ad in the campaign can stand on its own.
When creating advertisements, and applying them to an advertising campaign, there are three main types of advertisements to consider.
It is no secret that advertising is used to sell things. This could cover anything from the launching of a new product to sending a reminder to us to purchase that familiar brand. More often than not, differing brands of the same product are parity products, meaning they are on par, or equivalent in value. It falls to the advertising to persuade the consumer on which product they should buy. While there may be two similar brands of cereal marked around the same price, an advertisement for one of them telling you that it is better for your heart rate and cholesterol would persuade you to purchase that brand instead of the competition.
Put simply, advertising matters. Advertising plays a large role in everything from public service and awareness to simply driving the economy. It is an unavoidable part of all of our daily lives and has become welded firmly in place in American pop culture. Advertising is not confined to just America though. It is a prominent piece of public life in almost every country in the world. With a target spanning everything from outdoor billboards and flyers to website banners and television ads it is virtually impossible to go a single day without coming into contact with advertising.
FUNCTIONAL VS. EMOTIONAL BENEFITS
When viewing an advertisement your audience is wants to know one thing; what is in it
for them? They need to know that viewing your advertisement and purchasing your
brand will benefit them in some way. This benefit can be portrayed in one of two ways:
functional or emotional.
Most ads will consist of the following elements:
Going back to the basic concepts of all graphic design that you learned in previous topics, the success of your poster design relies heavily on your ability to find the appropriate balance between type and visual elements. It is your goal to get your type and visual elements to complement each other. You want the design to catch someone’s eye and then lead their focus to the type you are trying to promote.
As in every form of visual communication, when designing posters you have the ability
to leave a great deal of the meaning of your design up to your audience’s own interpretation and imagination. The ability to master this skill will actually have a great emphasis on the ability of your design to maintain the focus of your audience by provoking thought and intrigue in your design.
Having a firm understanding of scale can lend a great deal of support to a designer’s ability to capture an audience by fashioning false impressions of spatial depth and
producing dynamic and varied visuals. When you have the ability to approach a design
with a very unusual design concept then you have a better chance of capturing a more
imaginative design and overall feel for your project.
SUMMARY
In summary, we have discussed that posters, like any form of advertising, serve one
main purpose: communicating a message. The most important thing to keep in mind
when developing and designing posters is that your design must be engaging. Posters
have the ability, when effectively designed, to be more stimulating than any other
graphic design application. Posters have taken on quite a large role in the modern
world. They have now progressed beyond just simply being an application for
advertising, but now they are also even considered art in many cases. Posters have
also branched into modern pop-culture as well.
While posters may have survived the test of time so far, there is no denying that they
have more competition now than ever before. As a graphic designer, not only in poster
design, but in all projects you take on, your number one goal should be making an
emotional connection with your audience. The success of your poster design relies
heavily on your ability to find the appropriate balance between type and visual elements.
The ability to master the skill of capturing your audience’s imagination and causing them
to form their own interpretations will actually have a great emphasis on the ability of
your design to maintain the focus of your audience by provoking thought and intrigue in
your design.
 The purpose and value of advertising
 The different forms and elements of advertisements
 The role of the creative team
 The value of a creative brief
 The difference between functional and emotional benefits
 The significance of a campaign structure
 Unconventional advertising formats
 Pros and cons of unconventional advertising
 The impact that sponsorship has on advertising
TYPES OF ADS
COMMERCIAL
ADVERTISING
PUBLIC SERVICE
ADVERTISING
Commercial advertising promotes brands and commodities by informing consumers; it is also used to promote individuals, such as political candidates, and groups, including corporations and manufacturers. This type of advertising is where you will find the most common traditional advertising mediums such as television, radio, online, print, or direct response. Sometimes these types of ads can also be used in unconventional advertising methods that cover multiple media formats.
*Public service advertising is advertising that serves the public interest.
You may commonly hear these types of ads referred to as PSAs, or Public Service Announcements. These types of advertisements are usually created by various advertising agencies and firms around the world and can cover a great diversity of different social causes. In most countries there is no charge by media outlets to run these types of advertisements because they are seen as a service to the community, but sometimes the organizations behind the campaigns will purchase additional ad time when they feel that the cause is important enough.
CAUSE
ADVERTISING
Cause advertising, sponsored by corporations, is used to raise funds for nonprofit organizations and is run in paid media.
Many corporations will affiliate themselves with such causes in order to create a positive public perception of their company. It should also be noted that the difference between these ad types and public service advertising is the involvement of a corporate sponsor.
THE CREATIVE TEAM
In advertising, the traditional creative team includes an art director and a copywriter, but today more unconventional creative teams or brand teams can contain many players.
The team will work together and decide on a central idea behind their advertisement. After the ideas are hatched the art director is the creative professional in an advertising agency responsible for the design decisions, and the copywriter is responsible for the writing.
The creative team is usually led by a creative director, or associate creative director,
who makes the ultimate decisions about the idea, creative approach, art direction, and copywriting before the work is presented to the client.
THE CREATIVE BRIEF
With all of the competition and creativity out there today, the most important challenge an advertising designer needs to think about is how they can create fresh, new idea that will connect with the consumer in ways that haven’t been done before. This is where the creative brief comes into play.
A creative brief is a strategic plan that both client and design studio or agency can agree upon and for which the creative team works as a strategic springboard.
The brief is usually written as a collaborative effort of the agency and the client and serves as the creative map that points the creative team in the right direction.
ELEMNETS
OF AN AD
A visual
Headline (or line)
Body copy
Tagline
Sign-off
The visual is the image, which may be a photograph, an illustration, graphics,
typography, o any other combination of visuals.
The headline is the main verbal message. This name is taken from the idea that it can
usually be found at the top of the page, but this is not required and it can be located
anywhere on the page or screen.
The body copy is the narrative text that further explains, supplements, and supports
the main advertising concept and message.
The tagline – also called a claim, endline, strap line, or slogan – conveys the brand
benefit or spirit, and it generally acts as an umbrella theme or strategy for a campaign or
a series of campaigns. This is a very important element to the overall ad because this is
usually where the meaning of the ad campaign is revealed.
*
The sign-off includes the brand’s or group’s logo, a photograph or illustration of the
brand, or both.
Functional benefits are the practical or useful characteristics of a product or service that aid in distinguishing a brand from its competition. An example of this may be one bag of potato chips says that it has zero grams of trans fat. The consumer now feels confident choosing this bag of chips over the other bag because they know that this bag is healthier for them. Knowing the functional benefit attached to the product creates interest from the consumer.
Functional benefits
Emotional benefits are based on feelings and responses and are not based on any functional characteristic of a product or service. Examples of these emotional benefits could be an ad that makes it seem that a product will build your self-esteem or it could just simply be a humorous ad that makes you laugh and feel good after seeing it.
Emotional benefits
There are 4 main
things an ad must do
in order to provide
either of these benefits:
 Grab attention
 Communicate a message
 Serve as a call to action
 Respect the viewer and be ethical
DEVELOPING AD IDEAS
Synonymous with the advertising world is the reference to the mysterious “big idea” that will pull in every consumer and convince them all to buy as well as buy into the brand and idea you are advertising. Most art directors and copywriters will have a very hard time explaining how their ideas come to them. Sometimes it just hits them and other times it is a strenuous process of trying multiple ideas until you finally find the one you were looking for. Try using the following points of departure to help you develop a more creative idea.
When used properly, a creative approach to the English language and words with double meanings can be quite effective in creating humor.
Pun
A visual analogy is a comparison based on likeness or similarities. An
advertising example of this would be comparing white-washing a fence to a teethwhitening
product.
Visual analogy.
A visual metaphor is using a visual that usually identifies one idea in order to represent a different idea. An advertising example of this would be to show an
elephant’s skin to represent dry or cracked skin for a skincare product.
Visual metaphor.
Icons can bring a friendly demeanor to a company’s image and
can easily simplify a more complex issue to the root.
Symbols & icons.
Being able to have the audience relate to your advertisement on a
personal level will immediately get you one foot in the door. These ads should highlight the humor that emerges in daily life.
Life
experience.
This approach works when you are trying to advertise a product that is so different from the other products in that market that it may confuse consumers. Using this approach, instead of highlighting the things that look different about the product, instead highlight the reasons why every different piece of that
product helps it be better than the current products on the market.
The problem is the solution.
to use the brand or to change your behavior. Prove to your
audience without a hint of doubt that they need your product by giving multiple
examples and demonstrations showing them why they need your product.
Practical Reasons
While comparing your product to the direct competition is usually not a good idea, comparing your product to some extreme emotion or experience can add
excitement to your product.
Comparisons.
Exaggeration is usually a fun and easy way to highlight just how good
your product is.
Exaggeration.
Endorsement can either be in the form of a celebrity, or in the form of an
everyday person that the consumer can relate to.
Endorsement.
This method is used when you not only want to sell a product,
but you want the consumer to believe that using that product will lead to them to
enjoying the lifestyle or attitude portrayed in the advertisement.
Lifestyle & attitude.
This is the advertiser winking at the audience as if to say, “We know that you
know we’re trying to sell you something, so let’s just have fun.” This approach has no pretense and no hard sell, it is simply meant to make a personal connection with the consumer in a “behind the scenes” type of manner.
Irony.
This is the idea of finding a way to pull your brand or product away from
the competition and put it on a pedestal.
Differentiation.
Simply put, people like to laugh. They enjoy the good feeling they get while
being entertained, and from an advertising standpoint, they put their guard down.
Humor.
Your audience is much more likely to react to your advertisement if you are
able to emotionally touch them with your message.
Poignancy.
CREATIVE APPROACHES
Taking a creative approach to your advertising design can result in amazing outcomes. While they may not be appropriate for every brand, product, or idea, they are still very flexible.
Reverse things
& statements.
Think of this approach as through the other side of a mirror. Reverse letters, words, and images to see what comes out.
Merge things.
Bring two different objects together to create a new object and to visualize your idea. An example of this may be to replace an opened mouth with an onion to show that the person has bad breath in order to advertise breath mints.
Use a strange point
of view or angle.
Approach your design ideas from multiple angles, both figuratively and literally. Try approaching the project from the consumer’s point of view and the people around the consumer that would be affected.
Compare things.
Make an association between two objects that may not be obvious to
the naked eye. This can provoke thought and therefore create interest in your design.
Visual surprise.
Catch your audience off-guard. Make them have to look twice to make
sure what they are looking at.
Bring in animate objects to life by giving them human characteristics.
Personify things.
Unconventional advertising has the ability to reach a wider audience in ways that no conventional method would have been able to do. Unfortunately, unconventional
advertising also has the ability to anger and annoy the public who do not enjoy losing their choice as to whether they want to be advertised at or not. When approaching a project with unconventional advertising it is very important to be careful as to how far you are pushing the envelope, because as much as unconventional marketing can reinvent your campaign, it can also cause it to go up in flames.
PROS AND CONS OF ADVERTISING
SUMMARY
In summary, we have discussed that, put simply, advertising matters. Advertising plays a large role in everything from public service and awareness to simply driving the economy. Advertising is a constantly evolving industry and companies are constantly trying to find new ways to introduce the public to their products or service, by using both
conventional and unconventional methods. In advertising, the traditional creative team includes an art director and a copywriter, but today more unconventional creative teams or brand teams can contain many players.

When viewing an advertisement your audience is wants to know one thing; what is in it for them? Taking a creative approach to your advertising design can result in amazing outcomes. While they may not be appropriate for every brand, product, or idea, they are still very flexible. Conventional advertising has become such a recognizable part of
everyday life that advertisers have come up with unconventional advertising methods in an attempt to ambush the audience.
Conventional advertising has become such a recognizable part of everyday life that advertisers have come up with unconventional advertising methods in an attempt to ambush the audience. Unconventional advertising appears in locations that traditional advertising is not found. It is usually placed in unpaid media as part of the public environment. Unconventional advertising comes in many shapes, sizes, and formats ranging anywhere from freestanding posters on the sidewalk to street teams sent out to cover mass areas with the advertisement. Unconventional advertising could really be considered an amalgamation of promotional design and public relations events.
UNCONVENTIONAL ADVERTISING FORMATS
REASONS FOR UNCONVENTIONAL ADVERTISING
Cynical Public
Many people have grown to easily recognize advertising and know when they are being given a sales pitch. It is these people that unconventional advertising techniques were originally designed to attract by appearing in the places where even those cynics would not expect to see advertisements.
As the world and technology alike are evolving at rapid speeds, advertising must also constantly evolve with the times and invent new and creative ways to get their message across.
*Four of the main factors that led to the inception of unconventional marketing are a cynical public, technological intervention, appeal of small budgets, and increased viewer participation.
Technological Intervention
In recent years the advances in technology, specifically referring to television, have greatly appealed to the public while greatly disturbing advertisers. With digital video recorders and similar technologies out there, not only, can the consumer bypass all commercials but they can also download movies directly to their recorders hard drives with no commercials or advertisements attached.
Appeal of Small Budgets
Unconventional advertising methods are very appealing to those advertising agencies on a small budget. The most powerful aspect of unconventional marketing is the ability to create a large “word of mouth” following which doesn’t cost the advertisers a thing..
Increased Viewer
Participation
The public no longer wants to simply be spoken at; they want to have some control. Some forms of unconventional advertising allow much more user participation, interpretation, or interaction.
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