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Unit 2: Postwar Challenges, 1945-1963
Transcript of Unit 2: Postwar Challenges, 1945-1963
The New Revolution
U.S. can't let world make reckless decisions
Remember U.S. neutrality?
We can't let this happen again!
Early Cold War Changes in U.S.
National Security Council (1947)
administer and coordinate defense policies
Immediate & Long-term Impact
created permanent peace-time military
created "in the event of" plans
consumed lots of taxpayer $
Coordinate gathering and evaluating of information on other nations.
Information is military or economy based.
Executive Order 9835 (1947)
Second Red Scare
Origins: American Communist Party in 1930s
Organized labor unions
Helped poor (Great Depression)
Civil Rights supporters
Oppose rise of Nazi party (Anti-Fascism)
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Civilian loyalty program for federal employees.
Political tests, interviews
State and local gov't soon followed
Attorney General's "List of Subversives"
Stigmatized 100,000+ innocents
Stigmatized immigrants from E. Europe
Destroyed careers and lives
Later included "homosexuals" in Loyalty Oath
Called witnesses to testify about loyalty
Called witnesses to inform on others
Refuse to answer/plead the fifth = contempt of court
Ruined lives and careers
Spy Cases Increase Cold War "Hysteria"
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Accused of spying in Washington DC in '30s
Historians are divided!
Accused of passing atomic secrets to Soviets
Electric chair, 6/19/1953
Civil Rights and the Cold War
Civil Rights Congress (1946-1956)
Primary Purpose: Defense organization
Rep. African Americans sentenced to death
Highlighted racial injustice in U.S.
HUAC accused CRC of Un-American activity
Peekskill Riot (1949)
Robeson's concert for Harlem C.R.C.
Why so angry?
"American Negroes will not go to war against the Soviet Union." ~Paul Robeson
Speak for peace or civil rights?
Secondary Purpose: Sponsor Peace Mvmt.
Claimed list of 205 traitors in State Dept.
Launched attack on Truman Admin.
Bigger Picture: Tapped our fears!
"Better dead than red"
Attacked women's groups, homosexuals
Almost ruined comic books!
Cold War Culture
Anxiety & Fear!
NO....NOT THE CARTOONS!!??
"Make Mine Freedom" (1948) MGM Studios
Themes in this Period
Fear spread of Communism
Self-destructive effects of individualism
Traditional family the BEST defense against communism?
Expected Gender Roles for Men
Home and lawn maintenance
Little involvement with kids or inside home
Expected Gender Roles for Women
Volunteer at school and church
Know that men are smarter
If you work, expect to be ridiculed
"The American Way"
Public displays of patriotism EVERYWHERE
1. Remind Americans of democratic values.
2. Visible signs we're not Communists
The Affluent Society
Fed. Gov't helped millions become middle-class
Subsidized housing, loans & tax breaks (oh my!)
= National Strength!
CIA Coups of the 1950s
Post WW2: U.S. secured Japan
rebuilt nation's economy
U.S. military base established
"Fall" of China
Chinese Civil War resumed post-WW2
Nationalist v. Communist
Nationalists surrender 1949, flee to Taiwan
Why is it a big deal to U.S. if China is Communist?
2. U.S. Businesses and trade partners lose
Election of 1952: Eisenhower v. Stevenson
Foreign policy experience
Neg. cease fire with North Korea
Supported corporate growth
Little support for social programs, farmer
Increased Cold War tensions (at first)
"The Good Life" = Stable America
The Golden Age of the Middle Class (1955-1960)
Baby Boom Forces Reorientation of Culture
Parents "survivors" of Depression
Better working hours & conditions
Better pay = single breadwinner
Kids grew up with sense of entitlement
Suburban America on the Rise
"Assembly line" homes create overnight 'burbs'
General Eisenhower and General Motors
"Big Three" represent stability, growth
Ike appoints GM Execs to Cabinet
~Marriage of business and gov't
Car culture reshapes U.S.
drive in movies & churches
full-service gas stations
The More You Know...
Higher education rate explodes
~Gateway to the Middle Class
White collar occupations boom
advertising and marketing
Obsession with conformity and fitting in
Take THAT, Polio.
(Thanks, Dr. Salk)
Advancements in Medicine - Vaccines!
Rock and Roll
The Power of Spectator Sports
Cultural Icons of the Era
The Coming of the New Frontier (1955-1963)
Baby Boom + Rising Incomes = Opportunity
Disney taps into youth culture
Disneyland (CA) opens '55
Treasure Island, '50
Peter Pan, '53
Mickey Mouse Club, '55
Evolution of "The Teenager"
More enrolled in High Schools
~increased social interaction
More free time & money
Ad companies focus on teen purchase power
Independent record labels recording rhythm & blues
~radios, jukeboxes, and records
"White covers" of black music (big record labels)
~teen audiences prefer R& B of black artists
Elvis "exploited" the sound and style
Paved the way for R&B greats to go "mainstream
Or did it happen this way..........?
Most teams install lights for night games
Baseball becomes "America's Pastime"
Racial attitudes change (in some areas)
TV makes football popular
Distrust of American virtues:
progress, power, material gain
open sexuality jazz
drug use outcasts
Media manipulates attitudes and behavior
Media isolates individuals in masses
Audiences are anonymous and detached
The Feminine Mystique
Mock culture's pretenses
Test societies limits
Defined modern American satire
1950s: Mocked conformity
1960s: Contributed to the "counterculture"
1970s: Point to media bias, encouraged truth-finding
Spy vs. Spy
Cold War Satire
Result of survey & research psych., media, advertising
Sparked 2nd "feminist" revolution
Unhappy despite material comfort and family
Don't forget about me!
Soviets test "air-dropped" bomb
Long-range bombers ready
Timeline of DOOM
Successful ICBM launch
Nikita Khrushchev new leader
Sputnik II (November)
Threatens nukes in Egypt (Suez)
Impact of Sputnik I & II on the United States (1957)
Americans felt inferior; vulnerable
I'm going where?
Rush to launch Vanguard 1
$$$ poured into:
National Defense Ed. Act
1957 - 1961
Continuous threats of nuclear annihilation.
U.S. begins U-2 missions
beyond anti-aircraft fire
Infrared cameras are cool!
Open secret among press
Francis Gary Powers
Shot down May 1, 1960
Powers captured, confessed, imprisoned
Election of 1960
First televised debate
"New Frontier Liberalism"= Youth support
"Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country."
The Peace Corps
Best publicized initiative
2-year commitment; Third World development
Inspired youth to serve
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Fed. supported day care
End gender bias in Social Sec. benefits
Mandated equal wages
The Space Race is ON Like Donkey Kong!
Cuban Revolution and the U.S.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ('63)
November 22, 1963
Castro comes to power 1959
CIA authorized to train Cuban exiles (via Ike)
Bay of Pigs Invasion ('61)
CIA-led force of Cuban exiles
strengthened Castro in Cuba
Russia is still shooting animals into space.
"Why not throw a hedgehog in Uncle Sam's pants?"
~Nikita Khrushchev, April 1962
Soviets ship weaponry to Cuba
Washington D.C., Northeast, & Midwest
Discovered Oct. '62
(U2s Spy Plane)
Kennedy imposed naval quarantine*
~warned of retaliatory strikes on Soviets
Khrushchev deployed nuclear weapons (via sea)
'13 Days in October'
U.S., Soviet Union, Great Britain
Where CAN they test?
Assassination in Dallas, TX
Lyndon Johnson sworn in 11/22
History of U.S. Intervention in Iran - 1953 Until Present
ThePresidentdotcom Channel on YouTube
Published June 26, 2010
, by David Halberstam. John Funk's YouTube Channel. Posted October 2, 2015.
From the Movie
The Right Stuff
Actual test footage from NASA rocket launches between 1960-1961:
Time to Learn About Civil Defense!
"Don't Be a Sucker" (1947)
The Best Film Archives
Rules of the 1950s led to rebellion in the 1960s...
From "Making Sense of the Sixties," by David Hoffman. Youtube. 4 April 2013. Accessed 1 September 2017.
Ed Sullivan Show
Rebel Without a Cause
Movies with themes of Juvenile Delinquency
Some Like it Hot
(feat. Tony Curtis and Jack Lemon)
Bill Haley and the Comets
Jackie Gleason and Audrey Meadows
spoke & sang about hypocrisies of "freedom"
Isaac Woodard Jr.
Attacked while in uniform, 1946
Outrage, activism, but no punishment
Black artists beloved by whites...
Why all of the violence/resentment?
Black veterans sought equality post-war
White Americans determined to:
reinforce white supremacy
suppress black veteran opportunities
increase Jim Crow laws and punishments
The Space Program!
Arguable Starting Point:
Chuck Yeager Breaking Sound Barrier
Orbit man made spacecraft around earth
Investigate man's ability to function in space
Recover man and aircraft safely
First American in Space:
Alan Shepard, May 6, 1961
Suborbital Flight: 15 min., 28 sec.
First American to ORBIT earth:
John Glenn, Jr.
Feb. 20, 1962
4 hours, 55 minutes
May 15-16, 1963
34 hours, 19 minutes
Studied impact on human body over time
May 25, 1961
December 29, 1968
Goal: Get a man on the moon (first)
Mission accomplished 7/20/1969
Purpose: Bridge to Apollo Program
Test important skills and questions for a trip to (and from) the moon.