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Unit 2: Postwar Challenges, 1945-1963

Modern U.S. History
by

Michele Goostree

on 9 September 2018

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Transcript of Unit 2: Postwar Challenges, 1945-1963

Unit 1:
The Cold War
1946-1989

The New Revolution
U.S. can't let world make reckless decisions
Remember U.S. neutrality?
We can't let this happen again!
CIA (1947)
Purpose:
Coordinate gathering and evaluating of information on other nations.
Information is military or economy based.
Executive Order 9835 (1947)
("Loyalty Oath")
Second Red Scare
Origins: American Communist Party in 1930s
Organized labor unions
Helped poor (Great Depression)
Civil Rights supporters
Oppose rise of Nazi party (Anti-Fascism)
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
(1938-1969)
Civilian loyalty program for federal employees.
Political tests, interviews
State and local gov't soon followed
Attorney General's "List of Subversives"
Stigmatized 100,000+ innocents
Stigmatized immigrants from E. Europe
Destroyed careers and lives

Later included "homosexuals" in Loyalty Oath
Called witnesses to testify about loyalty
Called witnesses to inform on others
Refuse to answer/plead the fifth = contempt of court
Ruined lives and careers
Spy Cases Increase Cold War "Hysteria"
Alger Hiss
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Accused of spying in Washington DC in '30s
Historians are divided!
Accused of passing atomic secrets to Soviets
Electric chair, 6/19/1953
McCarthyism (1950-1956)
Civil Rights and the Cold War
(Early Conflicts)
Peekskill Riot (1949)
Robeson's concert for Harlem C.R.C.
Why so angry?
"American Negroes will not go to war against the Soviet Union." ~Paul Robeson
Speak for peace or civil rights?
Un-American
Claimed list of 205 traitors in State Dept.
Launched attack on Truman Admin.
Bigger Picture: Tapped our fears!
"Better dead than red"
Attacked women's groups, homosexuals
Almost ruined comic books!
Anxiety & Fear!
Family
NO....NOT THE CARTOONS!!??
"Make Mine Freedom" (1948) MGM Studios
Themes in this Period
('45-'59)
Fear spread of Communism
Self-destructive effects of individualism
Traditional family the BEST defense against communism?
Baby Boom
"Nuclear Families"
Expected Gender Roles for Men
Breadwinner
Disciplinarian
Host
Additional Expectations:
Home and lawn maintenance
Car maintenance
Little involvement with kids or inside home
Expected Gender Roles for Women
Housekeeper
Cook
Child care
Subservient
Additional Expectations:
Volunteer at school and church
Know that men are smarter
If you work, expect to be ridiculed
"The American Way"
Public displays of patriotism EVERYWHERE
Purposes:
1. Remind Americans of democratic values.
2. Visible signs we're not Communists
The Affluent Society
Fed. Gov't helped millions become middle-class
Subsidized housing, loans & tax breaks (oh my!)
<<<Consumer Goods
= National Strength!
We
Like
Ike!
('52-'60)
CIA Coups of the 1950s
Iran
Guatemala
"Losing" Asia
Post WW2: U.S. secured Japan
rebuilt nation's economy
demilitarization
women's suffrage
anti-Soviet mindset
U.S. military base established
"Fall" of China
Chinese Civil War resumed post-WW2
Chaing Kai-shek
Mao Tse-Tung
Nationalist v. Communist
Nationalists surrender 1949, flee to Taiwan
Why is it a big deal to U.S. if China is Communist?
1. Military
2. U.S. Businesses and trade partners lose
$$$
Korean "War"

Election of 1952: Eisenhower v. Stevenson
Foreign policy experience
Neg. cease fire with North Korea
Supported corporate growth
Little support for social programs, farmer
Increased Cold War tensions (at first)
"The Good Life" = Stable America
The Golden Age of the Middle Class (1955-1960)
Baby Boom Forces Reorientation of Culture
From this
To this
Why?
Parents "survivors" of Depression
Better working hours & conditions
Better pay = single breadwinner
Kids grew up with sense of entitlement
Suburban America on the Rise
Planned communities
"Assembly line" homes create overnight 'burbs'
What's missing?
General Eisenhower and General Motors
"Big Three" represent stability, growth
Ike appoints GM Execs to Cabinet
~Marriage of business and gov't
Car culture reshapes U.S.
shopping malls
drive in movies & churches
hotels
road-side diners
full-service gas stations
car rental
The More You Know...
Higher education rate explodes
~GI Bill
~Gateway to the Middle Class
White collar occupations boom
banking
insurance
real estate
advertising and marketing
management
Obsession with conformity and fitting in
Take THAT, Polio.
(Thanks, Dr. Salk)
Advancements in Medicine - Vaccines!
Youth Market
Rock and Roll
The Power of Spectator Sports
Cultural Icons of the Era
The Coming of the New Frontier (1955-1963)
Baby Boom + Rising Incomes = Opportunity
TOYS!!!
Disney taps into youth culture
Movies
TV
Disneyland (CA) opens '55
Treasure Island, '50
Peter Pan, '53
Mickey Mouse Club, '55
Evolution of "The Teenager"
More enrolled in High Schools
~increased social interaction
More free time & money
~juvenile delinquency?
Ad agencies focus on teen purchasing power
~shared culture
Independent record labels recording rhythm & blues
~radios, jukeboxes, and records

"White covers" of black music (big record labels)
~teen audiences prefer R& B of black artists
Elvis "exploited" the sound and style
Paved the way for R&B greats to go "mainstream
Or did it happen this way..........?
Chuck Berry
Elvis
Most teams install lights for night games
Baseball becomes "America's Pastime"
Racial attitudes change (in some areas)
TV makes football popular
The
Beats
Jack Kerouac
Allen Ginsberg
Distrust of American virtues:
progress, power, material gain
Writing celebrated:
spontaneity friendship
open sexuality jazz
drug use outcasts
Culture Critics
Media manipulates attitudes and behavior
Media isolates individuals in masses
Audiences are anonymous and detached
Beatniks
and
Beat Culture
MAD Magazine
The Feminine Mystique
Debut: 1952
Purposes:
Mock culture's pretenses
Test societies limits
Defined modern American satire
1950s: Mocked conformity
1960s: Contributed to the "counterculture"
1970s: Point to media bias, encouraged truth-finding
Spy vs. Spy
Cold War Satire
Result of survey & research psych., media, advertising
Sparked 2nd "feminist" revolution
Unhappy despite material comfort and family
Don't forget about me!
1955
Soviets test "air-dropped" bomb
Long-range bombers ready
Timeline of DOOM
1957
Successful ICBM launch
1956
Nikita Khrushchev new leader
Sputnik (October)
Sputnik II (November)
Threatens nukes in Egypt (Suez)
Impact of Sputnik I & II on the United States (1957)
Americans felt inferior; vulnerable
I'm going where?
Laika
Rush to launch Vanguard 1
$$$ poured into:
National Defense Ed. Act
NASA
1957 - 1961
Nikita
Khrushchev
Continuous threats of nuclear annihilation.
U.S. begins U-2 missions
beyond anti-aircraft fire
Infrared cameras are cool!
Open secret among press
Francis Gary Powers
Shot down May 1, 1960
"Weather mission"
Powers captured, confessed, imprisoned
Election of 1960
First televised debate
"New Frontier Liberalism"= Youth support
*WHY important?
"Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country."
The Peace Corps
Best publicized initiative
2-year commitment; Third World development
Inspired youth to serve
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Fed. supported day care
Continuing education
End gender bias in Social Sec. benefits
Mandated equal wages
RESULT?
The Space Race is ON Like Donkey Kong!
Cuban Revolution and the U.S.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ('63)
November 22, 1963
Castro comes to power 1959
Socialist Revolution
CIA authorized to train Cuban exiles (via Ike)
Bay of Pigs Invasion ('61)
CIA-led force of Cuban exiles
ill-equipped
failed
strengthened Castro in Cuba
FUN FACT!
Russia is still shooting animals into space.
"Why not throw a hedgehog in Uncle Sam's pants?"
~Nikita Khrushchev, April 1962
Summer
1962
Soviets ship weaponry to Cuba
Range:
Washington D.C., Northeast, & Midwest
Discovered Oct. '62
(U2s Spy Plane)
Kennedy imposed naval quarantine*
~warned of retaliatory strikes on Soviets
Khrushchev deployed nuclear weapons (via sea)
O
C
T
O
B
E
R
'13 Days in October'
U.S., Soviet Union, Great Britain
Prohibits testing:
above ground
outer space
under water
Where CAN they test?
Assassination in Dallas, TX
Lyndon Johnson sworn in 11/22
History of U.S. Intervention in Iran - 1953 Until Present
ThePresidentdotcom Channel on YouTube
Published June 26, 2010
From:
The 50s
, by David Halberstam. John Funk's YouTube Channel. Posted October 2, 2015.
From the Movie
The Right Stuff
(1983):
Actual test footage from NASA rocket launches between 1960-1961:
https://prezi.com/aore6aciwaxd/the-korean-war/
https://prezi.com/9ycytxvhq7zi/civil-defense-begins-at-home/
Time to Learn About Civil Defense!
"Don't Be a Sucker" (1947)
The Best Film Archives
Rules of the 1950s led to rebellion in the 1960s...
From "Making Sense of the Sixties," by David Hoffman. Youtube. 4 April 2013. Accessed 1 September 2017.
Ed Sullivan Show
James Dean,
Rebel Without a Cause
Movies with themes of Juvenile Delinquency
Marilyn Monroe,
Some Like it Hot
(feat. Tony Curtis and Jack Lemon)
Bill Haley and the Comets
on
American Bandstand
The Honeymooners
Jackie Gleason and Audrey Meadows
spoke & sang about hypocrisies of "freedom"
Isaac Woodard Jr.
Attacked while in uniform, 1946

Outrage, activism, but no punishment
Black artists beloved by whites...
Why all of the violence/resentment?
Black veterans sought equality post-war
White Americans determined to:
reinforce white supremacy
suppress black veteran opportunities
increase Jim Crow laws and punishments
The Space Program!
Arguable Starting Point:
Chuck Yeager Breaking Sound Barrier
1947
Project Mercury
(1958-1963)
3 Goals:
Orbit man made spacecraft around earth
Investigate man's ability to function in space
Recover man and aircraft safely
First American in Space:
Alan Shepard, May 6, 1961
Suborbital Flight: 15 min., 28 sec.
First American to ORBIT earth:
John Glenn, Jr.
Feb. 20, 1962
4 hours, 55 minutes
3 orbits
May 15-16, 1963
Gordon Cooper
22 orbits
34 hours, 19 minutes
Studied impact on human body over time
May 25, 1961
December 29, 1968
Apollo 8
Apollo Program
Goal: Get a man on the moon (first)
Mission accomplished 7/20/1969
Gemini Program
Purpose: Bridge to Apollo Program
Test important skills and questions for a trip to (and from) the moon.
Part 1: 1946-1963
Part 2: 1963-1975
Part 3: 1975-1989
Political and Military Challenges, 1946-1963
McCarthy eventually discredited; committee lost power
Before we leave political and military challenges of 1946-1963...
Quick reminder of these challenges:
Iron Curtain
Containment
Impact of Marshall Plan
Berlin Blockade and Air Lift
Need for Truman Doctrine
Creation of NATO
Creation of Warsaw Pact
Creation and Impact of National Security Council
Brinkmanship
Mutually Assured Destruction
Source: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/herblock/
Social Challenges
1946-1963

"School Days," by Chuck Berry
This is kid's stuff. What about teens?
Teens enter the workforce
How is this different than what we learned in U.S. History?
Why do you think the avg. wages increased so much in 10 years?
What are you earning and spending your money on in 2018?
What's Life like in the Soviet Union post-Cuban Missile Crisis?
Khruschev's Fall From Power
Corn production ideas from U.S.
Usable land in USSR not suited for corn
An embarrassment when traveling abroad(?)
Cuban Missile Crisis weakened USSR image
Leonid Breshnev
(1964-1982)
"Age of Stagnation"
Repressed free speech/press
Very little economic reform
Increase power of Iron Curtain
Re-Militarization
1968: Sent troops to Czechoslovakia ("Prague Spring")
Crushed democratic reform movement
1979: Sent troops to Afghanistan (Expansion of territory)
10 Year war drained personnel & resources
Increase nuclear weapon production
What's NOT Allowed in USSR?
Emigration from Communist Bloc countries.
Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly
Unemployment
Homelessness
Honest education about Joseph Stalin
Athletes traveling out of country w/o gov't chaperones
"In the Soviet Union, they give everyone a job, but then they don't want to give the people money. However, nobody's complaining, because they found a perfect compromise. The Soviet government pretends that they're paying, and the Soviet people pretend they're working."
Horrible gov't pay = zero incentive for effort
Production quality poor = small international market
Innovation discouraged = USSR backwards in technology
Rise of alcoholism
Life expectancy declines!
But they have free health care!
Breshnev dies of mysterious circumstances '82
Yuri Andropov
1982-1983
Konstantin Chernenko
1983-1985
and so did his successors...
Can this man outlast the survival rate of his predecessors?
The End of the Cold War
Mikhail Gorbachev
Last leader of Soviet Union
Appointed to invigorate Communist Party
...but...
Reforms led to downfall of USSR
Time to learn about Glasnost, Perestroika, and how the combination brought the Cold War to an end.
Beginning of the end of the Cold War according to Americans of the time (and now).
Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, Germany
June 12, 1987
Reykjavic Summit (1986)
End to nuclear stockpiles by 2000?
No agreement, but opened a door
Gorbachev needed assurances
The Tipping Point: Fall of Berlin Wall
So HOW did it end?
Full transcript