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Small & Destructive: pest identification and organic controls

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Nadia Mercer

on 13 February 2017

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Transcript of Small & Destructive: pest identification and organic controls

Harlequin Beetle
Plant Damage
other Organic Solutions
insect soap
Kaolin Clay
Pyrethrum
Harlequin Beetles
Host plant
: Brassica family; i.e. cabbage, collards, kale & broccoli
Description:
adults over winter in garden debris and begin laying in spring. Bright yellow or red and black beetles. Very easy to spot.
Damage:
adults and nymphs drain the juices from leaves and stalks with sharp needle-shaped mouths creating cloudy areas around the point of extraction, browning and wilting plants over time
Things to do before Harlequin
Beetles take over:
cloudy bleached spots appear on leaves
Before
After
trap crop: plant mustard greens or radishes in early spring and Cleome flowers after threat of frost. Remove plants as soon as infested.
floating row cover
hand pick and put into bucket of soapy water
clear and compost all brassica debris in fall
DIY soap and garlic solution
more info
Small and Destructive:
pest identification &
organic controls

Cabbage Loopers/Cabbage Worms
Colorado Potato Beetle
Cucumber Beetle
Cutworm
Flea Beetle
Aphids
Root Maggots
Squash Vine Borer
Squash Bug
Tomato Hornworm
Wireworm
Cutworm
Plant Damage
Before
After
Things to do so Cutworms don't destroy your seedlings:
do not transplant in cool wet soil
plant in drier, weed free soil
make stem collars out of newspaper or toilet paper rolls
bait with a moist clump of clover or sprouts half buried
hand pick after a rain
Host Plant:
tomatoes, peppers, corn
Description:
Heaviest in DC area around April and May. Curl up into a "c" shape when disturbed. find at base of plant right under surface of soil.
Damage:
eat through seedlings at base of stem, underground or ground level
Organic Controls
BT
Nematodes
Cabbage Looper
Plant Damage
Before
After
How to stop cabbage loopers from eating all your brassicas:
cover plants
transplant more mature seedlings to give them a head start
intercrop with dill and onions
regularly hand pick
Host Plants:
Brassicas; cabbage, collards, kale, broccoli, turnips, radishes
Description:
adult moths lay tiny yellow eggs on underside of leaves. eggs hatch within a week into green caterpillars and begin eating and growing. Several generations in one season
Damage:
chew large irregular holes in leaves. leave green fecal pellets on plants
Other Organic Solutions
BT
Kaolin Clay
insect soap
Pyrethrum
Squash Bug
Plant Damage
Before
After
How to keep these jerks from killing your squash plants:
consider planting later in the season- mid-july
duck tape or dust bust
row cover at seedling stage
only plant a few plants
succession planting
Host Plants:
Cucurbit family; summer squash, cucumbers, watermelon, winter squash
Description:
adults lay shiny reddish jewl-like eggs on underside of cucurbit leaves
Damage:
nymphs and adults suck juice out of stems, drying up plants, causing leaves to get crispy and wilt

other Organic Solutions
kaolin clay- surround
pyrethrum
Host Plant:
Night Shades; potatoes,tomatoes,eggplant, peppers
Description:
Adults overwinter in the soil,lay egg masses on underside of night shade leaves, hatch into nymphs and pupate into adults. 3 generations per season
Damage:
nymphs and adults eat leaves of plant starting at edges and moving inward
Colorado Potato Beetle
Plant Damage
Before
After
How to keep these squishy beasts from chowing down all your night shade leaves:
other Organic Solutions
Flea Beetle
Plant Damage
Before
After
How to at least try to keep these tiny buggers from making lace our of your leaves:
other Organic Solutions:
Host Plant:
Brassicas; cabbage and broccoli mainly. Onions.
Description:
look like house flies but smaller. Larva maggots roots of seedlings underground or burrow through root vegetables
Damage:
sudden yellowing and drooping of leaves
Root Maggot
yellow bowls of water
yellow sticky traps
sawdust around plants
row cover
transplant hardy seedlings
Stick it to em before it's too late:
http://www.canolacouncil.org/crop-production/canola-growers-manual-contents/chapter-10b-insects
Plant Damage
other Organic Solutions:
BT
nematodes (water siphon)
http://growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/growingsmallfarms-pestinsects/
be observant
create an inviting habitat to draw in a diverse range of insects and birds by planting fragrant plants, herbs, annual flowers, shrubs, trees
healthy soil = healthy plants,use compost
transplant vulnerable plants when more mature and better equipped to fight pests
practice crop rotation if possible
The big picture in fighting pests:
Tomato Hornworm
Plant Damage
Diatomaceous Earth
Bt.
Pyrethrum
Before
After
check this out!
Braconid Wasps-parasites
hand pick
How to deal with these little guys:
Parasitic Wasp killing Aphids video:
Host Plant:
everything
Description:
small 1/32"-1/8" soft bodied round insect ranging in color from green to gray to even red
Damage:
nymphs and adults suck liquid out of plant leaves and stems
Aphids
Plant Damage
Before
After
other Organic Solutions
ladybugs and parasitic wasps
hose them off
make a soapy spray solution and spray repeatedly until under control
mix 1/2 tsp of peppermint Dr.Bronner's castile soap with 1 quart water infused with garlic and hot pepper
Volunteer at The Washington Youth Garden Tuesday or Saturday 9am-noon
www.washingtonyouthgarden.org
202-245-2709
US National Arboretum 3501 New York Ave. NE Washington DC 20002
Want to learn more about pest first hand?
Product Info
BT:Dipel- active ingredient is Bacilus Thuringiensis, a bacteria that causes many insects to die upon ingestion but is harmless to animals and humans.
Beneficial Nematodes:Dr. Pye's Scanmask Live Beneficial Nematodes. Mix with water and spray or apply through irrigation. Feed on eggs and larva in soil.
Kaolin Clay: Surround-forms an effective film barrier, protecting plants from pests by repelling them, causing irritation and confusion, and preventing feeding and egg-laying. Can also use with a sprayer.
Diatomaceous earth: Kills by ingestion or by contact with the powder, which cuts the exoskeleton, causing dehydration within 48 hrs
Soap: Safer Insect Soap- for controlling aphids, whiteflies, and spider mites
Pyrethrum: Pyganic- chrysanthemum byproduct. kills upon contact. non-selective.
Host Plants:
eggplant and Brassica family, especially seedlings; kale, collards, radishes
Description:
tiny 1/32-1/8" shiny black beetles that act similar to lice, hopping when disturbed on surface of leaf
Damage:
many tiny shot holes appear in leaves
tape or vacuum
row cover on seedlings
intercrop with herbs and flowers; mint,thyme, basil (find host through sent detectors)
keep leaves moist
cultivate top 1/2" of soil to expose eggs
white sticky traps
raised beds
Diatomaceous earth
Safer Soap
Pyrethrum
straw mulch around plants hosts natural enemies like the ground beetle
crop rotation away from night shades
hand squish- very easy to spot
row cover
Spinosad
Kaolin clay
Pyrethrum
Host Plant:
tomatoes
Description:
camouflaged green in color and grows to finger thickness. larva of sphinx or hummingbird moth
Damage:
larva feed on leaves and tomato fruit at night. look for their dark green excrement.
other organic solutions
Safer Insect Soap
Before
After
Host Plants:
curcurbits (ex. zucchini,
pumpkins, gourds)
Description:
Tiny flat and oval brown eggs at base of leaf stalks. Larva inside stem- wrinkled white body with brown head. Adult moths look like wasps, with bright orange hindlegs.In South, two broads a year. Overwinter in pupae form.
Damage:
Sawdust-like frass (droppings) come out from holes in stem. Leaves wilt, as plant looses nutrients and water from soil.
Plant Damage
Before
After
Prevention is your best bet
crop rotation
Use row cover until flowering
Wrap lower stems with nylon stocking or aluminum foil
Use a yellow bowl of water to attract and drown moths
Cover vines with dirt at various points to encourage rooting, so plant will live if main stem dies
After harvest, remove vines right away and don't compost if infected

Other Organic Controls
Watch for frass (droppings)
on stems. Use a needle to
poke in stem to kill larva
or a knife to carefully slit
stem and remove larva, and bury
slit stem in soil to re-root.

Before
After

Root Damage
Healthy
Attacked
encourage ladybugs, which eat the eggs
plants that repel: broccoli, calendula, catnip, goldenrod, nasturtiums, radish, rue and tansy pungent varieties of marigolds like African, French or Mexican marigolds.
check undersides of leaves often and smash eggs
spread onion skins on soil around plants
mulch thickly around plants, and trellis, to prevent larva damage
floating row covers before flowering
delay planting
These jerks will get the better of you even if you:

Nematodes
Neem oil
Surround
Pyrethrin
Sticky Traps- Cut plywood boards into rectangles 8x10" Cardboard could also be used. Paint with yellow paint and coat with Tanglefoot or some other adhesive. To bait these traps specifically you can use pieces of cotton wicks stuck to the boards that have been soaked in a Eugenol based oil which is what attracts the female beetles. 2 types of oils that contain 60 to 90% eugenol are allspice oil and clove oil. Squash blossoms contain indole which attracts adults---mash a few and stick them to your trap. Stake your traps vertically at ground level or no more than 12 inches above. As the traps fill up you can scrape and re-coat until they become unusable.
Host Plant:Potatoes, Carrots, Onions, Beets. Tubers, bulbs and any seeds.
Description: Larva 1 in. long slender and shiny yellow/tan. Adult- click beetles, 1/2 in brown/black and bullet shaped. Overwinter in soil. Long life cycle- Larva feed underground for 2-6 years!
Damage: Larva feed in spring (cool soil) underground on seeds, roots, bulbs, tubers. Plant wilt and die.

Thorough cultivation (tilling) to kill larva in soil
If possible, wait until soil has warmed up a bit to plant tubers
Traps- Cut a potato in half and run a stick through the middle. Bury the spud about one inch deep so that the stick stands vertically as a handle. Pull the traps out after a day or two and discard wireworms.
other organic controls
Pyrethin Drenches
Damage
Host Plant:
Cucurbit family; cucumbers, summer
squash, melons. Also, young corn and amaranth to name a few.
Description:
Live 8 weeks, with larva and adults feeding on plants. Football shaped orange eggs on the underside of leaves. Larva are 1/4-1/2" long. Adult beetles are yellow with black stripes or spots, with black heads.

Damage:
Larva attack plant roots and stems in spring. Adults usually first seen in late May, feed on leaves, stems, flowers, and fruit. Transmit mosaic virus and bacteria wilt, which kills the plants.
Other Organic Solutions
nematodes
BT
These worms are kinda fun but we still don't want them to eat our crops so...
Full transcript