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Week 7 Lesson 2: The July Days
Transcript of Week 7 Lesson 2: The July Days
Lenin returns to Petrograd
•Able to return under Provisional Government
•Lenin’s return was aided by the Germans (who hoped to knock Russia out of the world war by destabilising her further)
•Provided safe passage - Lenin traveled across occupied Europe in a sealed train
•Lenin and the Bolsheviks had been funded by the German government since the outbreak of war in 1914
Activity: Causes and effects of the July Days
1. Working in pairs.
2. Arrange the events into causes or effects (or perhaps both)
3. We have 8 minutes.
4. Class discussion to follow.
•‘Peace, Bread and Land’ – immediate concerns of the Russian people
•‘All power to the Soviets’ – Petrograd Soviet as the base for the new Revolutionary Government
•Gave birth to his political platform to gain power
Recap: The lead-up to the July Days
Lenin in Exile
•In Switzerland during February Revolution
•Most Bolsheviks exiled in Europe or Siberia during February
•Trotsky in New York
To explain aspects of cause and effect in the July Days.
Students will be able to explain the key causes and effects of the July Days for different groups, including the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks.
•Finland station - Petrograd
•3rd April 1917
•Lenin arrived in Russia and immediately condemned the February Revolution
•Finland Station speech (lays foundation of April Theses)
•Unexpected by most Bolsheviks – Bolsheviks in Russia has generally accepted the February Revolution and the Dual Authority
Short activity: Historical interpretations of April Theses and dual power
1. Working in pairs.
2. Have a look at these four historical interpretations.
3. Order them from 1 to 4, with 1 being the most positive appraisal of Lenin and 4 being the most critical.
4. We have 5 minutes.
•History of the CPSU:
“Lenin’s April Theses laid down for the Party a brilliant plan of struggle for the transition from the bourgeois-democratic to the Socialist revolution, from the first stage of the revolution to the second stage – the stage of the Socialist revolution.”
“...the ‘April Theses’... outlined a program of action that must have appeared tohis audiences as totally out of touch with reality, if not positively mad.”
“Lenin’s programme manifestly reflected and articulated the increasingly radical temper of the Bolshevik Party rank-and-file and the militant workers and troops of the soviets.”
“And again, as at every sudden historical turning point, the creative power of Lenin’s genius was displayed.”
The April Theses
Issued and disseminated 4 April (day after return to Russia)
Spoke of his desire to overthrow the Provisional Government – calling it a ‘parliamentary-bourgeois republic’
Rejected any cooperation with the Provisional Government
Demanded an end to the “imperialist” war
Activity: reading and questions on the July Days
1. Working individually.
2. Read and annotate the text.
3. Answer Questions 1 & 2.
4. We have 25 minutes.
5. Class discussion to follow.
Disturbances on Nevsky Prospect, Petrograd, July 1917.
Effects of the July Days for the Bolsheviks
The Bolsheviks had been caught unaware by this rising of Bolshevik sailors from within the Kronstadt Garrison. Successful uprisings must be coordinated and directed from above with strong leadership.
Revolutionary parties within the Soviet were disunited. The Bolsheviks must assume power alone as a coalition of revolutionary parties was unworkable.
The Bolsheviks still lacked mass popular support and first had to achieve a majority in the Petrograd Soviet.
Large-scale public protests breed failure; it is necessary to use surprise tactics in multiple locations at night.
The Provisional Government maintained enough military support to defeat armed insurrections, so small, disciplined groups of trained workers and sailors must be used.