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# Quantum Physics Lesson 2.2 - An Introduction to Particle Physics

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## Luke Bohni

on 23 May 2013

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#### Transcript of Quantum Physics Lesson 2.2 - An Introduction to Particle Physics

FERMIONS Leptons Hadrons Quarks There are 2 types of Fermion Anti-Matter A fermion is the classification given to any particle that makes up matter Bosons There are 5 known elementary Bosons The Higgs Boson Bosons are known as the "force carriers", particles that are involved in the interactions between fermions Lesson 2.2 An introduction to Particle Physics There are two types of particle The Gluon The Photon The W and z Bosons Only very recently discovered, the Higgs Boson allows particles to interact with the Higgs field and thus allows particles to have Mass The graviton is only theoretical at the moment but is thought to be a boson responsible for the force of Gravity (and one theoretical one) The Gluon is the Carrier of the Strong Force.

When two particles bind together under the Strong Force, really what is happening is they are exchanging Gluons between the two of them The Photon is the Carrier of the Electromagnetic Force When two particles interact magnetically or electrically, they exchange photons W and Z bosons (yes there are two of them) are Carriers of the Weak Force The Graviton So bosons are responsible for the forces. Whenever a force acts upon something, bosons are being exchanged. Quarks are the building blocks of subatomic particles like Protons and neutrons.

There are 6 type of quark
Up Quark
Down Quark
Top Quark
Bottom Quark
Strange Quark
Charm Quark Unlike Quarks Leptons can exist on their own.

Like Quarks however, There are 6 types of lepton:
Electron
Muon
Tau
Electron Neutrino
Muon Neutrino
Tau Neutrino Quarks cannot exist on their own but always come in groups (usually of 3's) Leptons can be either charged or uncharged.
The Neutrinos are uncharged and so rarely interact with anything
Most leptons decay over time into the most stable form, the electron Of course, we have only told you about half of the particles that are out there. As it turns out, each of the Quarks and Leptons mentioned earlier also have an anti-particle.

Anti-particles have exactly the same properties as their corresponding particle but have the opposite charge.

When a particle meets it's anti-particle, they annihilate and generate gamma rays (energy). Hadron is the name given to a combination of Quarks.

Some possible combinations are:

The Meson - A Quark and it's anti-Quark

The Baryon - three quarks joined together
(protons and neutrons are Baryons)

The Tetraquark - a combination of 4 quarks
{this is only theoretical} So how do we know about all these particle? Particle physicists use special machines known as particle accelerators to investigate the nature of these particles. By smashing hadrons together, they can break them apart to see what they are made of. But we aren't going to say much more about them here. Instead we want you to tell us about some of the famous ones. You will be broken up into 4 groups to research and create a 3 minute presentation for the class about a particular particle accelerator. ACTIVITY The 4 Particle accelerators will be... The Cyclotron the synchrotron the Linac The cathode Ray tube
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