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F 18 Cardiovascular


Jennifer Jezylo

on 23 October 2018

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Transcript of F 18 Cardiovascular

HEART (Cardiac muscle)
Located within the ventral body cavity, specifically the thoracic cavity, in the pericardial sac (outer layer) - Inflammation = pericarditis
Mostly middle layer (myocardium), which is cardiac muscle. This is branched, striated, and tightly joined (
Intercalated discs
... allow ions to pass from cell to cell) - Inflammation = Myocarditis
Inner layer – Endocardium (inflammation = endocarditis)
Positioned in the thoracic cavity so that the apex (pointy end) always faces left
Chapter 11 -
Heart and Ci
rculatory system
Separated into right and left sides by the septum
Two atria (atrium) - separated by interatrial septum
Upper chambers
Protruding auricles
Two ventricles - separated by interventricular septum
R and L lower chambers
Both are thick-walled, but the L ventricle has the thickest, most muscular walls, since it has to send blood to the entire body
R ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs
The superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus carry deoxygenated blood to the R atrium
R atrium sends blood through the tricuspid valve to the R ventricle
R ventricle sends blood through the pulmonary SL valve into the pulmonary trunk, which divides into the R pulmonary arteries and L pulmonary arteries carrying deoxygenated blood to the lungs
The R and L pulmonary veins then carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the L atrium
The L atrium sends blood through the bicuspid valve to the L ventricle
The L ventricle sends the blood through the aortic SL valve into the aorta to send to the body
The first branches from the aorta (coronary arteries) supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood

Note: The heart is a double pump where oxygenated blood never mixes with deoxygenated blood
How it works ....
Cardiac cycle = the complete sequence of events in the heart from the beginning of one beat to the beginning of the following beat
AKA a complete heartbeat including systole and diastole:
The two atria contract together, and the blood flows through the AV valves into the relaxed ventricles
The two ventricles contract together, sending blood through the SL valves to the pulmonary trunk and the aorta
The atria are relaxed during this time, but the AV valves have closed, preventing back flow
Systole - Contraction of a heart chamber
Diastole - Relaxation of a heart chamber
“lub” - The sound of the AV valves closing during ventricular systole
“dub” - The sound of the SL valves closing due to back pressure in the arteries
“lub-swish-dub” - Heart murmur, most often due to leaky AV valves
Normal human heart rate - 60 to 80 beats per minute (bpm)
Normal human blood pressure = 120/80 mmHg
Intrinsic (inside the heart) control –
Sinoatrial node (SA node) “Pacemaker”– In the upper wall of the R atrium – Initiates the heartbeat and sends an impulse ~ every second that causes atrial contraction
Atrioventricular node (AV node) – In the base of the R atrium – Sends signal for ventricular contraction through the AV bundle (in the septum), the right and left bundle branches, and the purkinge fibers (In the ventricular walls)
EXTRINSIC CONTROL (Outside of heart)
Medulla oblongota – Part of the brainstem that controls internal organs via the autonomic nervous system:
Parasympathetic system via the Vagus (X) nerve – Decreases the SA and AV node activity during rest
Ex. Sleep
Sympathetic system – Increases the SA and AV node activity during activity or excitement
Ex. During exercise, sympathetic system is stimulated and HR ↑
Adrenal gland – Releases hormones epinephrine and nor-epinephrine to $ the heart
Ex. Fright, epinephrine is released HR ↑ - “Fight or Flight” reaction
EKG (ECG) ...
Measure of the ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY of the heart
Blood vessels ...
Arteries (always leave the heart) → Capillaries → Veins (always enter the heart)
Microscopically, three layers in both arteries and veins –
Inner layer or tunica interna– (endothelium)
Middle layer or tunica media– (mesothelium) – thickest layer - smooth muscle, which contracts to regulate blood flow and blood pressure
Outer layer or tunica externa– (exothelium)
Capillaries are ONE CELL THICK for easy exchange of materials (endothelium only!)
Three layers –
Inner layer – tunica interna (endothelium)
Middle layer – tunica media (mesothelium) – thickest layer in arteries - smooth muscle, which contracts to regulate blood flow and blood pressure
Outer layer – tunica externa (exothelium)

Arterioles –

Smooth muscle of the mesothelium contracts to constrict the lumen diameter → ↑ blood pressure
When the mesothelium relaxes, the lumen diameter dilates → ↓ blood pressure
Capillaries ...
Exchange material at the tissue level
One-cell-thick walls of only endothelium
Capillary beds – Networks of many capillaries – Are in all body regions, but only certain capillaries are open at certain times
Filtration, diffusion, osmosis, endocytosis and exocytosis
Capillaries → venules → veins
Veins carry blood from the capillaries back to the heart
Venules - Small veins that drain blood from the capillaries
Venules and veins have the same three layers as arterioles, but much less smooth muscle
Venules drain into the veins
Veins have valves, which allow blood to flow toward the heart and prevent backflow
70% of the blood volume is generally in the veins
Veins have thinner walls than arteries, and they can expand more, acting as a blood reservoir
BOTTOM LINE: Arteries carry blood away from the heart, capillaries assist in nutrient, waste, & gas exchange at the tissue level, & veins return blood to the heart
Special circulation ...

In this very unusual circulation, a vein is located between two capillary beds.
The hepatic portal vein collects nutrient-rich blood absorbed from the intestines and empties it into the liver.
The liver processes and distributes these nutrients
Hepatic veins return deoxygenated blood to the inferior vena cava.
Hepatic arteries supply the liver itself with oxygenated blood
Circle of WILLIS

During fetal development, the lungs are collapsed and nonfunctional. They are by-passed by the ...
Foramen ovale (oval opening)

- an opening in the interatrial septum. This allows blood to flow from right to left atria (but not in opposite direction), and also into the aorta via the ...
Ductus arteriosus (arterial duct)
- a vessel between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.

After birth, the
foramen ovale seals up and becomes the fossa ovalis and
ductus arteriosus seals up and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum
(a ligament between the pulmonary trunk and aorta).
Pulse – pressure wave of blood

Monitored at “pressure points” where pulse is easily palpated
Measurements by health professionals are made using the pressure in large arteries (usually the brachial artery)
Systolic pressure – pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction (Ventricular systole)
Diastolic pressure – pressure in the arteries when ventricles relax (Ventricular diastole)
*** Pressure in blood vessels decreases as the distance away from the heart increases.

Human normal range is variable
Normal = ~120/80 mmHg
Hypotension = Low systolic (below 110 mm Hg)
Often associated with serious illness (infection, etc.)
Hypertension = High systolic (above 140 mm Hg)
Can be dangerous if it is chronic

A particular hormone is produced by myocardial cells in the right atrium. This hormone is ...
a. Antagonistic to aldosterone
b. Activated by barorecptors in the walls of the myocardium
c. Produced in response to high blood pressure
d. Important in inhibiting rennin production
e. All of the above
The pulmonary veins ...
a. Carry blood to the heart from the lungs
b. Contain deoxygenated blood
c. Enter the right atrium
d. Leave the left ventricle
e. Leave the right ventricle
The cranio-sacral nervous system ...
a. Causes heart rate to increase
b. Sends fibers to the heart via the vagus (X) nerve
c. Cause an decrease in heart rate
d. Will increase blood pressure
e. Both b and c
During the P wave portion of the ECG (When the atria depolarize) ...
a. Sodium rushes into the axons in the atrial wall neurons
b. The sodium/potassium pump maintains ion concentration
c. Potassium enters the axons, and sodium is extracellular
d. The action potential moves through the purkinge fibers
e. Huh?
In the capillaries beds, oxygen is exchanged for CO2 within the tissues through ....
a. Osmosis
b. Active transport
c. Filtration
d. Diffusion
e. Endocytosis
What is the cardiovascular "bottom line"?
a. Veins always carry deoxygenated blood
b. Veins always carry oxygentated blood
c. Arteries always carry oxygenated blood
d. Arteries always carry blood from the heart and veins
always carry blood to the heart
e. All of the above are false statements
The thoracolumbar (sympathetic) nervous system acts to ...
a. Decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate
b. Decrease blood pressure and decrease heart rate
c. Increase both heart rate and blood pressure
d. Have no effect on the heart at all
e. Increase blood pressure and decrease heart rate

Internal ...
EKG (ECG) ... Measures the ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY of the heart
How does blood move through veins and lymph vessels since blood pressure there is so low?
Special circulations:
Circle of WILLIS
Pulse – pressure wave of blood
Monitored at “pressure points” where pulse is easily palpated
Capillary exchange
Internal environment = Blood + tissue fluid (mostly H2O)
Tissue fluid composition stays pretty constant due to capillary exchange
Excess is removed by the lymphatic system capillaries
Movement of substances across the capillary membrane due to PRESSURE differences is called FILTRATION
Filtration is a passive transport process
The myocardium of the heart is made of of what basic tissue type?
A. Epithelial
B. Connective
C. Cardiac
D. Muscle
E. Nervous
TRUE or FALSE: Arteries always carry oxygenated blood and veins always carry deoxygenated blood.
a. True
b. False
NOTE: In the pulmonary circuit (blood going to and coming from the lungs), arteries carry deoxygenated blood and veins carry oxygenated blood!!
NOTE: In the systemic circuit (Blood going to and coming from the body), arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins deoxygenated.
Specifically, the middle layer of the heart is ...
A. Cardiac muscle
B. Myocardium
C. Pericardium
D. All of the above
E. Both A and B
The leaky junctions found in cardiac muscle are known as ...
A. Dermatomes
B. Myocytes
C. Intercalated discs
D. All of the above
E. Both B and C
True or False: Arteries always carry oxygenated blood and veins always carry deoxygenated blood.
A. True
B. False
What is normal human heart rate?
a. 60-80
b. 120/80 mm Hg
c. 100- 120
d. 35-45 bpm
e. None of the above are correct

1. Milking action of skeletal muscle exteriorly and
2. Thoracic pressure changes (breathing)
Beacuse blood pressure is HIGH in arteries, blood moves through
NOTE: Veins ALWAYS enter the heart and arteries ALWAYS leave the heart!
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