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Introduction to Disads
Transcript of Introduction to Disads
like learning about
aka Disads aka DAs
A story about how the affirmative plan causes the end of the world
An argument about the "side effects" of what would happen if the affirmative plan took place
A negative team's best friend
The Middle of the Story:
"The Link" or
"Then came the Aff plan to mess everything up"
The Link is the connection between the affirmative plan and the terrible things that will happen
The link is an argument that "A" (the affirmative) will cause "B" (the bad thing)
The End of the World
That link looks weak!
The end of the story:
The Impact or
"The End of the World!"
Explains the end result of what the affirmative will do
Disads always end in tragedy: This is the negative's story of why the affirmative will be bad
Answers the "So What?" question
Additional Disad related terms
: How close we are to the edge
: How much it will take to push us over the edge and trigger the DA
: How quickly will it take for the disadvantage to happen
: An argument to connect initial link to the impact
The Spending DA
A. Uniqueness: Spending is under control now.
B. Link: the plan spends money, which raises the federal deficit
C. Internal link: A higher deficit hurts the economy
D. Economic downturn leads to nuclear war
The Politics DA
A. Uniqueness: The President will be able to pass a climate bill now
B. Link: the affirmative plan costs the political capital needed to get the climate bill passed
C. Without a climate bill, run away global warming will destroy the earth!
A "turn" aka "turnaround" flips the argument from
negative to affirmative
There are two ways to turn a DA:
1. Link turn: The plan avoids the DA instead of causing it
2. Impact turn: The impact is not bad: its actually good
Turns can twist a negative disadvantage into an affirmative advantage.
This is a powerful strategy!
Answering Disadvantages on the Aff
Types of Answers:
No Internal Link
I want to take something for this headache, but what about the side effects?
Aligned with CDL Benchmark #8:
Off Case arguments:
Disadvantage Structure and Utility
Extending Disads in the 2NC/1NR
Start with an overview:
Persuasively explain the DA
Point out weaknesses in 2AC answers
Extend key arguments
Then do systematic line by line on 2AC answers
Work off of 2AC structure: use their numbers
Read evidence only as needed
Spend more time on best 2AC responses
For every attack by your opponent, have at least two responses, my friend.
Extending Disads in the 2NR
Use risk calculus to show why you win:
Subsumes the case
Extend important arguments
Answer all 1AR responses
The 2AC almost always uses their own structure and numbering
Good 2ACs rarely have fewer than four answers to any disad
Since I only need to win one, these 8 answers should do the trick!
The Beginning of the Story:
"It's all cool, everyone!"
At the beginning of the story, the negative says that the
is OK. We will not have anything bad happen if we just stick with current system.
Uniqueness is the argument that the DA will NOT happen if we DON'T do the affirmative plan
The Roadrunner DA
A. Uniqueness: Wile Coyote is resting alone on a cliff
B. Link "Beep, Beep!" startles Mr. Coyote
C. Impact: a long, familiar and painful trip to the canyon floor
Running Disads in 1NC
Run them early (before case attacks)
Run them often (more than 1 DA is often wise)
Always include all three parts
Put your best evidence first
Keep the "shells" short
I wonder which part they will attack...
A. The Beginning: "Uniqueness"
B. The Middle: "Link"
C. The End: "Impact"
Running Disads in 2NC
It is NOT against the rules, BUT:
There is less time to develop your argument
It can hurt your credibility
It can make the 2NR difficult
New disads in 2NC should be a last resort
You would rather be EXTENDING a disad
DA in the 2NC: