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Hearing/Audition

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Manas Takalpati

on 24 February 2017

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Transcript of Hearing/Audition

Terms to know
Basilar membrane-a membrane in the cochlea that bears the organ of Corti
Hair cells- sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates.
Organ of corti-a structure in the cochlea of the inner ear that produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.
Auditory nerve-a bundle of nerve fibers that carries hearing information between the cochlea the brain.
Conduction Deafness occurs when there is a physical problem conducting sound waves through the ear mechanisms.
Sensorineural deafness-type of hearing loss, or deafness, in which the root cause lies in the inner ear.
Cochlear implant-a device that can be surgically implanted a person's cochlea to stimulate it to cause hearing.

Intensity
Sound intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. The usual context is the measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listener's location. High sound intensity corresponds to high decibel levels and vice versa.
Loudness
Loudness is not simply sound intensity! Sound loudness is a subjective term describing the strength of the ear’s perception of a sound. It is intimately related to sound intensity but can by no means be considered identical to intensity.
Basically…..
Amplitude is the height of the wave and determines the sound level. Less height means less volume. More height means more volume.
Frequency is the number of times a wave occurs in a given timeframe. The more waves occur, the higher the pitch. The less waves, the deeper the pitch.
Frequency
The number of complete cycles/wavelengths in a specific time
Determines the pitch, which is how high or low a tone is
Amplitude
Amplitude is the objective measurement of the degree of change (positive or negative) in atmospheric pressure (the compression and rarefaction of air molecules) caused by sound waves

Hearing/Audition

By: Christian Schmidt, Shivan Shah, Adi Bhujle, Anish Bondre, Kusal Samarakoon, Manas Takalpati
-The Outer Ear includes the pinna, the ear canal, and the ear drum.
-Sound is collected by the pinna, directed to the ear canal, and finally to the eardrum--where it is transitioned to the middle ear…
-The Middle Ear includes the hammer (malleus), the anvil (incus) and the stirrup (stapes).
-The malleus transmits sound, then the incus passes vibrations to the stapes



Parts of the Ear
-Contains the cochlea (involved in hearing) and semicircular canals (involved in balance)

Cochlea
-Coiled, fluid-filled tube that contains the the basilar membrane
-Amplified sounds waves cause fluid waves in the cochlea
-In turn, sends a neural message to the thalamus via the auditory nerve, then later through the auditory cortex in to the temporal lobe

Inner Ear
Timbre
The character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity.
Timbre helps your ears distinguish one type of sound production from another. For example, the sound of your cat from your dog even if they bark/meow at the same pitch and volume.

Theory of hearing that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated.
We can hear different pitches because of specific parts on the basilar membrane of the cochlea

Place Theory
Frequency Theory
The theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Sounds come into ear and are transformed into nerve signals by the cochlea. These nerve signals are sent to the brain via the nerve impulses
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