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Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud
Transcript of Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud
What is it? Who was Sigmund Freud? Application Summary A generalized definition can be the following:
Psychoanalysis is naturally associated with three things:
1. A method of mind investigation and especially of the unconscious mind.
2. A therapy of neurosis inspired from the above method;
3. A new stand-alone discipline that is based on the knowledge acquired from applying the investigation method and clinical experiences. -Founder of Psychoanalysis
-As an Austrian psychiatrist, Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining “insight”.
-Freud lived most of his life in Vienna and died in London in 1939. He discovered psychoanalysis by systematizing ideas and information coming from different, theoretical and clinical directions.
-The self-analysis, to which Freud was submitted himself, represented the biggest contribution to the birth of psychoanalysis.
-The psychoanalytical movement initiated by Freud went through a lot of ideological break offs and difficulties. Today it is inherited by a series of national or international societies that dispute their supremacy. -The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious.
-Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Through exploring the unconscious, psychoanalysis has many different uses for exploring the psyche. However results vary and aren't always accurate.
Psychoanalysis is used today more as a healing (therapy) method than a diagnostic one. Patients usually opt to try therapy before choosing medications. -In psychoanalysis (therapy) Freud would have a patient lie on a couch to relax, and he would sit behind them taking notes while they told him about their dreams and childhood memories. Psychoanalysis would be a lengthy process, involving many sessions with the psychoanalyst. Ways to Explore the Psyche Rorschach Ink Blots -The ink blot itself doesn’t mean anything, it’s ambiguous.
-It is what you “read” into it that is important.
-Different people will “see” different things depending on what unconscious connections they make.
-The ink blot is known as a projective test as the patient 'projects' information from their unconscious mind to interpret the ink blot.
-However, behavioral psychologists such as B.F. Skinner have criticized this method as being subjective and unscientific. Good/Common "Bat, Butterfly"
Bad Answers: "Seeing the butterfly antennae as scissors or any cutting device is an indicator of a castration complex. Schizophrenics occasionally see moving people in this image. Seeing crocodile heads on the ends of the bat's wings indicates hostility." Ways to Explore the Psyche Freudian Slip Ups -Unconscious thoughts and feelings can transfer to the conscious mind in the form of parapraxes, popularly known as “Freudian slips” or slips of the tongue. We reveal what is really on our mind by saying something we didn’t mean to.
-Freud believed that slips of the tongue provided an insight into the unconscious mind and that there were no accidents, every behavior (including slips of the tongue) was significant (i.e. all behavior is determined). Ways to Explore the Psyche Free Association A technique of psychoanalysis therapy is free association in which a patient talks of whatever comes into their mind. It involves a therapist reading a list of words (e.g. mother, childhood etc.) and the patient immediately responds with the first word that comes to mind. It is hoped that fragments of repressed memories will emerge in the course of free association.
Free association may not prove useful if the client shows resistance, and is reluctant to say what he or she is thinking. On the other hand, the presence of resistance (e.g. an excessively long pause) often provides a strong clue that the client is getting close to some important repressed idea in his or her thinking, and that further probing by the therapist is called for.
Freud reported that his free associating patients occasionally experienced such an emotionally intense and vivid memory that they almost relived the experience. This is like a "flashback" from a memory so stressful, it feels as though it is happening again. Specific Treatment Anxiety disorders such as phobias, panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are obvious areas where psychoanalysis might be assumed to work. The aim is to assist the client in coming to terms with their own id impulses or to recognize the origin of their current anxiety in childhood relationships that are being relived in adulthood.
Depression may be treated with a psychoanalytic approach to some extent. Psychoanalysts relate depression back to the loss every child experiences when realizing our separateness from our parents early in childhood. An inability to come to terms with this may leave the person prone to depression or depressive episodes in later life. References