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Ancient India Chp 5 Sec 2 The Origins of Hinduism
Transcript of Ancient India Chp 5 Sec 2 The Origins of Hinduism
Chapter 5 Section 2
Shiva: one of the most important deities of Hinduism.
The Origins of Hinduism
Aryans Move Into India
Key Question: Who were the Aryans?
Most Indo-Europeans were nomads.
Lived in family groups, or clans.
Herded cattle, sheep, and goats.
They were warriors who rode horse-driven chariots.
Fought with long bows and arrows and with bronze axes.
Around 2000 B.C., something drove them from their homeland in a wave of
Historians do not know if a drought, a plague, or an invasion made them leave.
What obstacles might the Indo-Europeans have encountered in
The Aryan Migrations
In about 1500 B.C., the Aryans, a group of Indo-Europeans, are believed to have migrated to the Indian subcontinent.
They were herders who lived in simple houses.
Aryans spoke an Indo-European language called Sanskrit.
Did they force the Harappans to flee south? For years, that is what was thought...but now they think it was the result of earthquakes and floods.
Changes to Indian Life
Key Question: How was Aryan society organized?
Social Structure-Aryan society was organized into classes:
As they grew more complex, they developed into what was later called the caste system. A caste is a social class that a person belongs to by birth.
Those groups organized into four categories
Brahmans were priests, scholars, and teachers.
Ksatriya were rulers, nobles, and warriors.
Vaisya were bankers, farmers, and merchants.
Sudra were artisans and laborers.
Aryan Beliefs and Brahmanism
Early religion of the Aryans is Brahmanism, after the name of the Aryan priests, or Brahmins.
Aryans worshiped many nature deities.
Brahmins made sacrifices to those deities by offering animals to a sacred fire.
The rituals of the Aryan religion and many hymns to their deities are found in ancient
Sanskrit sacred texts called Vedas.
Vedas are four collections of prayers and instructions for rituals.
Most important of the collections is the Rig Veda.
. See p. 123
Indians wrote about their ancient history is such works as the Mahabharata-an epic poem that retells many legends.
The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Mahabharata. See p.124.
Hinduism: The Religion of India
Key Question: How did the religion Hinduism develop?
The Bhagavad Gita is an important sacred text of Hinduism.
Hinduism is the modern name for the major religion of India, which developed from Brahmanism.
Hindus worship many deities
Although they believe in many deities, Hindus also recognize one supreme God or life force.
They believe the other deities to be parts of the one universal God.
Three most important of the other deities are Brahma-the creator, Vishnu-the protector, and Shiva-the destroyer (Shiva destroys the world so that it can be created anew)
Hindus believe in
reincarnation, which means that each person has many lives.
What a person does in each life determines what he or she will be in the next life, according to a belief called karma.
In Hinduism, this is the belief that the consequences of a person's actions in this life determine his or her fate in the next life.
Reincarnation creates a repeating cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth.
The cycle ends only when a person achieves a mystical union with God.
To achieve that, a person must come to realize that his or her soul and God's soul are one.
Many Paths to God
Hindus believe they connect with God by following their own individual path.
Part of that path concerns one's job, which is linked to the caste system.
Devout Hindus must faithfully carry out their assigned duties in life.
Hindus have a choice of spiritual practices to grow closer to God.
Two of these are also popular with non-Hindus:
Meditation is the practice of making the mind calm.
Yoga is a complex practice that includes exercise, breathing techniques, and diet.