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Soap Project

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by

Valerie Henderson

on 10 December 2015

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Transcript of Soap Project

Objectives
Background
Project Assessment
Process of Saponification
Job Vacancies
vhendersoncampbellchemistry.weebly.com
Ewa Beach, HI
.
Background:
1. Improve communication skills.
2. Experience an applicable scientific endeavor.
3. Become familiar with the corporate world.
Saponification
You must apply for your job.
Soap Project
The 2015
In a cost-effective and creative manner, your company is to produce 454 grams of packaged, quality soap that meets and appeals to the consumer's demands of a specified soap market.
Project Objectives
Job Vacancies
Jobs will be offered to those who complete the best applications and show the most professionalism.
Please see handout. Choose your job preferences and submit an application.
Job Vacancies
We (the class) are an existing company based in Ewa Beach, Hawai’i that plans to enter the market of producing bar soap for families in the Leeward community. Our marketing division in Honolulu, has provided us with an initial analysis of the Leeward Community. Assuming that we can take over 20% of the Leeward “family” market, that each family would purchase seventy-five 140-g bars per year, and that we stick to a basic recipe of lard, lye and water, we could make a minimum profit of 10% per bar sold. From our research division at the University, we have obtained an initial small-scale basic recipe that makes ~21 grams of hand soap. This recipe will serve as our foundation for producing the one-pound prototype. Prior to the project we will become familiar with the process of saponification by using the recipe to make initial soap samples. In addition a soap expert will inform us of the chemistry behind saponification and take our questions.

Assessment
You are competing against other companies to produce the best soap, best presentation, best portfolio. You will be judged using these categories.
Upper management member or department grade member portfolio (10 points)
Please see criteria on handout.
Job Application:
3 points
Please see handout
Company Product Grade
5 points
Please see handout
Company Public Relations
5 points
PR
Please see handout for details
Character
10 points
Individual
Please see handout for details
the process that produces soap
acid
oil
+
base
salt
+
water
The soap is actually the salt produced from an acid-base reaction.
(triglyceride)
+
lye
soap
+
water
(NaOH)
Types of Soap
NaOH
KOH
Can be used in water containing Mg, Cl, and Ca salts (hard water)
In hard water, it pulls the metals out of the water solution and isn't effective in cleaning.
(crisco)
Industrial Soap-making Process
History of Soapmaking
The exact origins of soap are unknown, though Roman sources claim it dates back to at least 600 B.C. , when Phoenicians prepared it from goat's tallow and wood ash.
Soap was also made by the Celts, ancient inhabitants of Britain.

Soap was used widely throughout the Roman empire, primarily as a medicine. Mention of soap as a cleanser does not appear until the second century A.D. By the eighth century, soap was common in France, Italy, and Spain, but it was rarely used in the rest of Europe until as late as the 17th century.


Manufacture of soap began in England around the end of the 12th century. Soap-makers had to pay a heavy tax on all the soap they produced. The tax collector locked the lids on soap boiling pans every night to prevent illegal soap manufacture after hours. Because of the high tax, soap was a luxury item, and it did not come into common use in England until after the tax was repealed in 1853. In the 19th century, soap was affordable and popular throughout Europe.

Read more: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Soap.html#ixzz3bIJD5ZTN
3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
removal of glycerin
(produced with soap product)
humectant
(remember from empirical formula - absorbs water)
Why is it removed?
soap without it is more drying
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, e-liquid, cellophane
Hard vs Soft Water:
In hard water, there are many different dissolved ions such as calcium and magnesium. The only ion present in soft water is sodium ion.
Most commerical soap is not technically soap. It is actually detergent.
soap is a metallic salt of a fatty acid.
detergent is generally of synthetic origin. They usually contain a sulfate or sulfonate group.
Detergents are able to remove the magnesium and calcium ions from hard water. These ions, when in hard water are what make soap scum. That is why if you have hard water, you get soap scum on your shower walls.
alkali metal
(like lye)
NaOH
Full transcript