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Finishing, Binding, and Distribution

Ch. 25 of the Offset Lithography Technology Book
by

Laura Roberts

on 13 June 2013

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Transcript of Finishing, Binding, and Distribution

Finishing, Binding, and Distribution
Learning Objectives
When you have completed this presentation and
the assigned activities related to this chapter,
you will be able to do the following:

Determine the number of sheets of paper and the cutting sequence required for a given printing job.

List, describe, and perform basic finishing operations.

Use a guillotine paper cutter to cut and trim paper.

Identify the various types of folding equipment and types of folds.

Summarize the various types of binding and
indicate their appropriate applications.

Describe methods used to package
printed products for distribution.
Introduction
Transferring the image to the paper is sometimes
thought of as the end of the printing process.

In truth, the piles of printed press sheets probably require other
production steps before they are ready for delivery to the customer.

The final processing of a printed product generally includes postpress
finishing operations such as cutting, trimming, embossing, die cutting, numbering, laminating, folding, and binding.

Finishing is the term used to describe all operations performed on printed materials from the delivery end of the printing press to the final shipment to the customer. Finishing operations include, but are not limited to, cutting, folding, drilling, perforating, die cutting, foil stamping, embossing, varnishing, and packaging.
Trimming
Trimming is performed to booklets, magazines, or other publications after they have been bound. Trimming operations remove a small, predetermined amount of paper from the three outside edges of the bound product.
Punching
Drilling, Slotting, and Cornering
Paper drilling makes round holes in paper.
This drilling is usually performed on a machine called a paper drill. Slotting involves making holes that are not round. Cornering is any operation performed on the corners of paper
Varnishing
Varnishing is a process that places a coating,
or surface finish on printed sheets to impart resistance to chemicals, heat, scuffing, water, or other elements that would otherwise damage the paper. Varnish can be applied over an entire press sheet or printed selectively as a clear ink.
Binding
Operations
When a printed job is a book, magazine, booklet, or notepad, it needs to go through binding - the process of fastening together pages or signatures.
Distribution
A growing trend within the printing industry is for commercial printers to include distribution (also called mailing) among the services offered to customers.
Cutting
The cutting function is required when the
press sheet is larger than the dimensions of the
finished job and when the press sheet carries more than one
finished unit. Cutting can be cut either in-line or off-line. In-line cutting is performed in conjunction with web presses. Off-line cutting is performed in conjunction with sheetfed presses.
Folding
Most printed materials require some
type of folding on automated folding equipment.

Tabletop folding machines are used for light- to
medium-duty folding by in-plant and quick printers.

All possible folds are combination of two basic folds, parallel and right-angle folds. A parallel fold is made parallel to the previous fold. A right-angle fold is made at a right-angle to the preceding fold.
Die Cutting
Any irregular shape or design that cannot be cut with a straight cut is done by a process known as die cutting.
Perforating
Perforating is an operation in which a small
series of very short slits or holes is cut int the paper and a small bridge of paper remains intact between each hole, as in the case of a ticket stub.
Numbering
The process of imprinting tickets, checks certificates, or other items with consecutive figures (numbers and letters) is called numbering.
Assembling
for Binding
Books, booklets, magazines, and notepads are
examples of sheets bound together to form a product.

Assembling is the general term for bringing together the components in preparation for binding.

There are three terms for this assemblage process - collating, gathering, and inserting.
Jogging
Jogging is the squaring and aligning of sheets before loading onto the feeding table or cutting on the cutter.
Bindery
Planning
Communication among departments is necessary
because most printing jobs move through multiple stages
of production.

For example, the people in the press and finishing departments depend on the people in prepress to impose the job properly, relative to grain direction, guide edges, and appropriate bindery considerations.

Prepress workers must understand the various binding methods because adequate margin allowance must be provided during prepress operation.
In-Line Cutting
On a web press, the cutting function can be performed in-line - meaning while connected to the press in a continuous operation.

If the web press is printing business forms a rotary knife cuts the web into sheets of the desired size.

If the job is a newspaper, standard folding operations take place before the web reaches the cutter.
Off-Line Cutting
Paper printed on sheetfed presses is cut off-line - as a separate operation. Sheetfed paper is often cut twice - before and after it is printed.

For example, imagine 8.5" x 11" letterheads being printed two-up on an 11"x17" duplicator. If the paper is ordered 17"x22", the purchase sheets have to be cut in half to become 11"x17" press sheets. After printing, the
two-up press sheets need to be
cut again to separate the two
letterheads into the finished size -
also known as the trim size.

The term trim, refers to the
strips of excess paper left over
after the cutting operation.

The job just described would be
cut on a guillotine cutter, also
known as a single-knife trimmer.
Guillotine Cutter
A guillotine cutter can cut through as much as a 4" stack of paper, known as a lift Even the most basic cutter consists of a bed (or table), side guides. cutting stick, back fence, clamp, and blade.

A bed is the flat surface on which the lift sits
The side guide is the wall against which the left side of the lift is place
A movable back gauge holds the lift firmly in place in the desired position on the bed. This gauge is also known as the back fence.
The clamp is a metal bar that moves downward against the lift to force out air and hold the lift while it is being cut.
The knife is made of steel or steel-carbide, and is mounted to a bar located near the front of the clamp.
The cutting stick is located directly
below the blade, beneath the table's
surface. The cutting stick is located
directly below the blade, beneath the
table's surface. When the blade moves
through the lift, it cuts slightly into the
cutting stick, which is made of wood
or plastic, to avoid dulling the knife.
A Cutting Plan
Efficient and accurate cutting begins with developing a cutting plan that includes the optimum cutting pattern number of sheets required to be cut, number of cuts needed, and cutting sequence to be followed.

The optimum cutting pattern maximizes the number of cut sheets the parent sheet can yield.

Three factors determine
the minimum number
of cuts: whether or not
all four edges of the
parent sheet are to be
trimmed, the cutting
pattern, and whether or
not bleeds are involved.
Three-Knife Trimmers
A three-knife trimmer operates in much the same way as a single-knife trimmer, except it has three knives.

This trimmer uses two parallel knives and one right-angle-knife to trim three sides of the printed publications, such as magazines.

Three-knife trimmers can be
stand-alone or part of collating,
folding, and binding systems.

They are generally computer
controlled and designed to
monitor every step of the
trimming process, checking for
errors and providing information for smooth, continuous operation.
Trim Removal and Dust Collection
Trimming and cutting large amounts of paper results in trim waste and paper dust. Many firms have installed systems that combine trim removal with dust and mist filtration.
Types of Folds
Types of Folders
French Fold
Folding equipment can be divided into two basic types. These types are knife folders and buckle folders.
Knife Folders
A knife folder uses a thin blade and fold rollers to create a fold.
Buckle Folders
A buckle folder uses tapes or belts to carry a sheet of paper. This folder carries the sheet toward a fold plate consisting of two metal plates positioned at a slight incline above the drive and fold rollers.
Punching involves cutting rectangular or specially shaped holes in paper to accommodate for plastic and spiral binding.
Drilling
To drill paper on a single-spindled paper drill, follow the steps listed below:
Mark the proper location of the holes on the test sheet
Select the correct drill bit for the job
Insert the drill bit as directed
Along the bit with the hole-location marks on the paper.
Repeat the steps for every hole desired
Set the gauge for depth
Adjust the bit pressure
Change the cutting block
if worn
Adjust the
hold-down clamp
Insert the pile of
paper to drill securely
against both guides.
Lower the rotating bit
with foot pedal. Use a
small amount of stick
lubricant on the bit at regular intervals.
Round Cornering
Round cornering can be done on a paper-drilling machine set up to corner paper. The paper is cornered on a paper-drilling machine with a device that replaces the drill bit and paper hold-down clamp
Scoring
Placing a crease in a sheet of thick paper or cardboard to aid in folding is referred to as scoring.
Slitting
Slitting is the process of separating material by a rotary shearing action.
Foil Stamping
Foil stamping is a letterpress operation that uses relief images, heat, and foil (or film) to produce shiny gold, silver, or colored images on products such as
book covers and wine labels.
Thermography
Thermography is a process producing raised printing.
The word thermography is a combination of the
word parts thermo, meaning "heat", and graphy,
meaning "to write" - therefore, it means
"writing with heat."
Collating
Assembling individual sheets of paper is called collating. Collating is performed by placing piles of paper in the correct order along the edge of a work surface. One sheet at a time is picked up from each pile and assembled in proper sequence.
Accordion Fold
Single-fold 4-pg. fold
6-pg. Standard fold
The 4-page fold is the simplest type and can be used for greeting cards, price lists, programs, bill stuffers, menus, and instruction sheets.
This type of fold is made with two parallel folds and is used for envelope stuffers, letters, circulars and promotional folders.
An accordion fold consists of two or more parallel folds resembling one or more of the letter Z.
A french fold is a type of fold in which a sheet printed on one side is folded first vertically and then horizontally.
Gathering
Assembling signatures for hardcover or softcover (perfect) binding is gathering, a process similar to collating, except folded signatures are assembled, instead of flat sheets.

Signatures are lifted one at a time from their respected piles and stacked in the correct order. The term collate is also used to ensure that the correct number of signatures has been gathered in the correct sequence.
Inserting
Signatures to be bound with saddle stitching are assembled by being inserted. Instead of being placed alongside one another, they are slipped inside one another so the wire stitch goes through all the signatures.
Mechanical Binding
Mechanical binding fastens individual sheets of paper together with metal or plastic wire or strips inserted through punched or drilled holes.

Pages bound together with removable rings or posts are classified as having a loose-leaf binding.

Spiral binding requires a long series of small holes to be punched or drilled along the edges of the product through which a continuous wire or plastic coil is wound.

A comb binding uses a strip of solid plastic with curved teeth or prongs extending out.
Wire Stitching
Wire stitching is a binding method that uses staples to bind pages together.

Saddle stitching uses wires inserted on the fold line, or saddle, of the sheets to bind the pages together.

In side stitching, staples are inserted close to the fold and clinched at the back.
Perfect Binding
With perfect binding, the signatures are held together with a flexible cement. Pocket-sized books, telephone directories, thick magazines, and mail-order catalogs are examples of perfect binding. Books commonly referred to as paperbacks have received perfect binding.

Burst binding is a form a perfect binding used on reference books (dictionaries and encyclopedias) and some textbooks. This binding involves notching the spine of the book body and applying a high-strength adhesive under pressure.
Thermal Binding
The thermal binding process is similar to perfect binding because it uses heat and a special adhesive applied to the edges of the sheets. Books or booklets made of cut bages and covers are fed spine down through a thermal binding machine. A strip of heated adhesive material is applied ot the spine in one operation. A wraparound cover can also be applied to the spine, if desired.
Case Binding
Case binding is a means of binding pages together with thread and then encasing the sewn signatures with a sturdy cardboard cover.

Side sewing creates a very strong binding that is preferred for books sold to public libraries. When signatures are bound with saddle sewing method, the thread passes through the signature fold at the spine of the book.
Tipping
Tipping involves including a separate piece of printed material in the pages of a printed product. An example of tipping would be gluing and advertising insert to the page of a magazine. In tipping, liquid adhesive is usually applied along one edge of the insert before it is adhered near the spine of a page in a magazine, book, or booklet.
Padding
When simple tablets and notepads are produced, padding is used to hold the sheets together.

Padding consists of applying a liquid adhesive to one edge of a stack of paper. Usually, a piece of chipboard is included as a backing for each pad. A flexible
cement coating is applied to
one edge of the pile of sheets
and backings.

Padding allows easy removal of
individual sheets and is usually
use for notepads or
stationery-type products.
Grain Direction
Grain direction is a major consideration throughout production for several reasons.
The customer often specifies the grain direction of the finished product
Paper's grain direction affects stiffness, and stiffness is a factor in how well a sheet feeds through equipment
Grain direction is a factor in how easily paper folds.
Side-Guide and Lead Edges
A press sheet is positioned for registration purposes at the side-guide edge and lead edge. If possible, the same lead edge and side-guide edge of the press sheet is used when the sheet is cut or fed through a folder or other finishing equipment to maintain registration.
Signature Lip
It is necessary to consider the need for a signature-assembling extender, known as as a lip, lap, or pickup.

This extender is an extension of one side of a signature and results from the signature's last fold being off center.
Bindery Dummy
A dummy refers to a paper model of the job folded and assembled in the same way the finished product will be folded and assembled.

The dummy shows the size, shape, form, and general plan of the printed piece.
Packaging
The printer is responsible for the packaging and delivery of the printed product. The main purpose of packaging is protection of the contents. Customers typically specify how the job is to packaged.
Cartons
Special cartons are used for some printed materials. The products are often banded or wrapped before they are placed in cartons, which are often banded themselves.
Shrink-Wrap
Shrink-wrap is a transparent plastic film used to wrap or contain printed parcels or products.

This film is one of the most efficient packaging used in the finishing department.

The process makes the finished products easy to handle, makes the products attractive to the customer, and provides some protection to the bundled product.
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