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HHD Unit 2 AOS 3 Adulthood

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Megan L

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Transcript of HHD Unit 2 AOS 3 Adulthood

Adulthood
HHD - Area of Study 2
OUTCOME 2:
Adult health and development

KEY SKILLS:
Describe the stages of adulthood and ageing
Describe the characteristics of development during adulthood
Interpret data on the health status of Australia’s adults
Explain the determinants of health and individual human development and their impact on adults, using relevant examples
Early adulthood: 19-39
Middle adulthood: 40-64
Late adulthood: 65-death

STAGES OF ADULTHOOD
To understand:
the different classifications of stages of adulthood
characteristics of development associated with the stages of adulthood and ageing
Including physiological changes associated with ageing
social, emotional and intellectual development
Learning Intentions
Page 234 of text
Physical development:
Most people in early adulthood see themselves as being at their peak in terms of health, lifestyle, sex life and physical condition.
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Social development:
Gaining independence and developing identity become the main focus
Could include: starting a career, selecting a life partner, getting married or learning to live with a partner, managing a home or starting a family.
Career choices could be affected by conforming to society expectations and what is considered appropriate.
Most young adults may be employed in part-time jobs to gain some financial independence as they study.
Emotional development:
Good emotional development is the ability to understand and control the emotions, and to respond well to the changes taking place around and within the individual
Forming and maintaining relationships, in particular intimate relationships, will affect the development of self-concept.
Failed relationships or lack of support and encouragement from family, work or the community can lead to poor self-concept.
Formulating an identity and developing a sense of self are key components of early adulthood.
Physiological changes = change that occur to physical and biomedical functions of the human body
Intellectual development:
language skills, knowledge, memory skills and the ability to understand and reason are further developed.
Learning the skills and knowledge of a chosen career, requires a level of intellectual development
In the work environment, new employees will be inducted into the workplace and taught the necessary skills and information necessary to carry out their tasks
All roles acquired by an individual in their social life will further add to their experiences and provide them with knowledge and understanding.
An adult’s ability to reason, solve problems and strategise are all important components of intellectual development. It is experience gained over time that leads to a better understanding of the world
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Physical development:
A gradual decline in many physiological functions may be evident from the age of 30.
Menopause occurs in women (usually begins occurring in late 40s). This is where the ovaries cease releasing eggs. This leads to a range of symptoms such as gradual loss of monthly period , hot flushes, night sweats, headaches, mood changes, general aches pain
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Social development:
Some aspects of social development that traditionally occurred in early adulthood are increasingly becoming part of middle adulthood due to the delay in selecting a life partner or getting married, setting up and managing a home and starting a family.
Learning how to relate to a spouse/partner and develop a successful relationship is a major aspect of social development
Some adults become grandparents
others their age are still engaged in parenting their own children and preparing them to become responsible and happy adults.
Adults will develop socially from their career achievements, meaningful relationships with their partner, other significant friendships and involvement in community groups.
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Emotional development:
Middle adulthood is characterised by self-confidence and an acceptance by the person of who they are and what they want to achieve
By this stage, an individual will have already experienced many successes and failures. The way they coped with these situations will have shaped their emotional development.
Interactions with family, work and community can influence self-concept.
Factors such as an unsuccessful relationship, job dissatisfaction and difficulty coping with the demands of parenthood can have an impact on the emotional development
Adults need to cope with many challenges during this stage of their lives. They may face the possibility of unemployment and the impact it could have on their family.
Accepting, and adjusting to the physiological changes associated with ageing can be challenging.
Intellectual development:
During middle adulthood, knowledge is still being gained and the capacity to store knowledge and further build permanent memories is limitless.
The ability to process information and solve problems will generally improve.
Life experiences and maturity often give older people more wisdom than the young.
The onset of mental deterioration can be delayed if adults keep their minds active as long as possible.
Sudoku and crosswords can help achieve this.
Physical development:
LATE ADULTHOOD
During this phase the efficiency and working of the body systems continue to decline, and the physiological changes of older adulthood become more visible.
Factors such as genetics, quality of diet, level of physical activity and other lifestyle choices will determine the impact and speed of the changes associated with ageing.
By the age of 65, the average adult has experienced a 60 to 70 per cent decline in aerobic capacity since young adulthood.
Maintaining fitness throughout adulthood could reduce this decline to as little as 20 to 25 per cent.
LATE ADULTHOOD
Emotional development:
The transition from work to retirement is a significant social change and the impacts on emotional development can be enormous.
For many, coping with the change in routine, feelings of boredom, loneliness and loss requires a difficult adjustment.
Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health can create challenges and lead to frustration and anxiety.
Dealing with the death of a spouse
An individual with a limited support system may face further challenges related to loneliness and isolation
Social development:
Social development could be stimulated by retirement.
Coping with a reduced income, deciding what to do with the extra time, re-establishing the relationship with their partner (if they have one), and redefining household roles.
Many adults spend their time on home improvements, travelling, sporting interests, community activities and volunteering.
Intellectual development:
Gains can still be made in intellectual ability through life experiences, but there is a decline in information processing abilities.
Most intellectual abilities will start to decline slowly from about 70 years of age.
Research also suggests that the decline in intellectual ability, memory, knowledge and reaction time will be affected by the physiological changes associated with ageing such as decline in eyesight and hearing.
The ‘use it or loss it’ motto is real: practice may not only preserve existing skills, but also revive supposedly lost or declining skills.
How does it create a negative influence?
Allows health messages to meet a large range of people. Helps to raise awareness and educate people of the risks. Media help to imbed these messages which can improve physical health and development
Can have a positive influence and a negative influence
Media can enhance intellectual skills (learn how to create blogs, wikis, twitter, learn new information) and provide opportunities for meeting new people
Profiles on social networking sites have allowed people to form new relationships, improving their social and mental health
Hoes does the Media influence health an human development?
All forms of Media have the potential to influence the actions, beliefs, values, opinions and ideas of adults.
Media can include the internet, newspapers, TV, books, video games, billboards, posters and text messages.
MEDIA
Case study: ‘Children that never say goodbye’, P.311-312, key concepts
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Living arrangements
What are the benefits for elderly to remain in their home?
What are the benefits to being in a nursing home or hostel?
For elderly Australians, where they live is often dependent on their level of health.
For many living in the comfort of their own home is important for them but ill-health may impact on their ability to live independently
What type of activities may be difficult for the elderly?
What are the risks to their health?
Living arrangements
Living with a partner may have a protective effect for many reasons, including having greater disposable income for material resources, the social support provided by a partner and the positive impact that partners may have on health behaviours
The emotional support that some parents may gain from having their adult children at home can enhance the parents’ social and mental health and individual human development.
Being single is associated with higher mortality than being married or living in a de facto relationship
Why might this be?
Living arrangements
Living arrangements: Adult children living at home
Living arrangements refer not only to the type of accommodation that an adult lives in but also to the number of people living together and the relationships between them.
young adults living at home are more likely to eat nutritious food prepared by their parents rather than buying prepared or packaged meals that are high in saturated fat, salt and sugar.
living at home may create a sense of dependence on their parents, which reduces opportunities for them to develop the skills required to live as independent adults.
Having adult children living at home can increase financial stress due to the cost of providing for their needs.
Having to care for adult children may impact on the mental health of parents if there is conflict with the children
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
Living arrangements
What types of living arrangements are there?
Why might adult children live at home?
Is this healthy for all involved?
Social Environment
E lesson: ‘Aussies working longer hours’, P.308, Key concepts.
Homework: Personal survey P.349
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Lowers self esteem, self concept and confidence
Shame, embarrassment and isolation
Depression, stress and anxiety
Risk of poverty
Lack of income means can’t afford social activities, nutritious food, education costs, bills etc
Creates social and family stress
Relationships breakdowns/conflict/violence
Drug abuse
Loss of skills
What are examples of this?
Case study analysis .244 Volunteering


What is the impact of work on a mothers health an development?
UNPAID WORK
What are the negative effects of unemployment?
UNEMPLOYMENT
Work-related stress affects the health of an adult in a variety of ways including:
depression
anxiety
feelings of being overwhelmed and unable to cope
sleeping difficulties
fatigue
headaches
heart palpitations
diarrhoea or constipation
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
How can work related stress impact on health and individual human development?
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
The workplace:
The working relationship that an adult has with colleagues has a significant impact on their health and individual human development.
Conflict between colleagues can have a negative impact
workplace stress costs the Australian economy $14.81 billion per year.
$10.4 billion is due to absenteeism and presenteeism. (Presenteeism is the loss of productivity that results from employees coming to work but, as a consequence of illness or other conditions, not functioning at full capacity
Factors such as long working hours, heavy workloads, change within the organisation, tight deadlines, lack of job security, boredom, harassment, discrimination, lack of autonomy and being over-supervised can also contribute to stress.
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
The Workplace
Work or employment has many benefits
Lead to a sense of pride and achievement
Feelings of belonging and connectedness
Feelings of worth and self esteem
Work can form a big part of some ones identity
Is this always the case?
Social Environment
The Workplace
What are the possible benefits and the Consequences of being employed or in the work place?
Think, Pair and share
How do the ideas fit with Health and development?
Social Environment
Question:
Explain the possible impact on health and individual human development of a long term work-related injury
LEARNING ACTIVITY
While office jobs have a relatively low risk of injury, conditions related to overuse of technology are becoming more common.
Having to sit for hours in front of a computer may lead to back and neck pain, headaches, muscle and joint pain of the upper limbs, and eyestrain from having to look at the monitor for extended periods of time
Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) is a condition caused by repetitive movements that can affect the tendons and muscles of the hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, back and neck.
Research indicates that shift work is a risk factor for work-related injuries. The work-related injury rate for shift workers is approximately twice that of non-shift workers. Why?
WORKPLACE SAFETY
WORKPLACE SAFETY
Workplace safety:
There is a greater risk of workplace injuries and illnesses during adulthood.
Males have higher rates of injury than females
An injury rate of approx 64 people per 1000 employed people.
Young workers are more likely to sustain a work-related injury than an older worker.
The higher rate of injuries in these occupations is due to the physical nature of these jobs.
What occupations are likely to experience the highest rate of injury?
This is a major impact on Physical health!
How might a workplace injury impact on the mental and social health of people?
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of accidents and injury in a range of settings including motor vehicle and bicycle accidents, accidents involving pedestrians, falls, fires, drowning, sport and recreational injuries, alcohol poisoning, overdose, suffocation, choking on vomit, assault, violence and intentional self harm.
More adults die from alcohol-related road accidents and injuries than from alcohol-related cancers, cardiovascular disease and alcohol dependence combined.
ALCOHOL USE
Alcohol use:
Alcohol is the most widely used and accepted recreational drug in Australia
In the 65–74 year age group, almost 600 people die annually as a result of drinking related illness or injury, and a further 6500 are hospitalised.
Moderate intake of alcohol (no more than two drinks per day) may contain health benefits for older people, particularly men over 40 years of age and women over 50.
Red wine, is considered to be beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease due to the anti-oxidants it contains.
BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS
Normal Blood pressure:
Less than 120/80
Normal-High blood pressure
Between 120/80 – 140/90
High Blood pressure
Equal to or more than 140/90mmHG
Very High blood pressure
Equal or more than 180/110mmhg
Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart muscle contracts and exerts blood
Diastolic pressure measures the minimum pressure on the arteries when the heart muscle relaxes and returns blood to the heart
Measures the force of the blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as Systolic and Diastolic measurements.
High blood pressure is known as Hypertension
Linked with a high intake of salt, lack of physical activity, high alcohol consumption and being overweight.
Blood Pressure
Test your knowledge questions: Cholesterol
P.282, Q.1-5, Key concepts
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Dr Norman Swan’s Cholesterol Check
E lesson
Limit foods high in saturated fats such as processed meats, full-fat dairy products, takeaway foods, deep-fried foods and cakes
Consume a wide variety of fresh fruit, vegetables and wholegrain foods
Choose low-fat varieties such as low- or reduced-fat milk, yogurt and cheese.
Choose lean meats or trim fat from meat.
Consume fish a couple of times a week (Polyunsaturated fats are sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fats)
Use polyunsaturated margarines instead of butter.
Consume nuts, legumes and seeds.
Limit cheese and ice-cream to no more than two serves a week.
Use salad dressings and mayonnaise made from oils such as canola and olive oils.
Limit cholesterol-rich foods such as egg yolks and offal (liver, kidney, brains).
CHOLESTEROL
How can we reduce cholesterol?
High cholesterol levels can be an inherited condition. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is passed on by the genes inherited from parents.
It is a condition that affects one in every 300 Australians and is responsible for up to 10 per cent of heart disease that occurs before the age of 55.
Trans fatty acids can be damaging as they raise LDL levels and lower HDL levels.
The trans fatty acids that need to be reduced are the ones that are manufactured in table margarines and solid spreads used to make baked products such as pies, pastries and cakes.
CHOLESTEROL
Cholesterol becomes a health concern when there is too much of it in the blood.
High blood-cholesterol levels, particularly LDLs, are one of the three main risk factors for heart disease.
The liver is where the processing of cholesterol occurs. When saturated fats are consumed, the cholesterol that is not processed by the liver is returned to the bloodstream to build up on the artery walls.
Levels can be reduced through lifestyle modifications, including reducing alcohol intake, not smoking, exercising regularly, controlling weight and consuming a healthy diet.
CHOLESTEROL
Blood cholesterol:
Cholesterol is a type of fat
It produces hormones, assists with digestion through the production of bile acids and is an essential component of cell membranes.
It occurs in two forms: high- density lipoproteins (HDLs) and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs).
HDL cholesterol is referred to as the ‘good’ cholesterol as it can help unclog arteries by removing excess LDLs out of the cells.
LDL cholesterol, are referred to as ‘bad’ cholesterol because it can cause fatty substances to build up on the arterial walls (atherosclerosis) and block the blood vessels leading to a heart disease or a stroke.
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
E lesson
Predicting Alzheimers.
LEARNING ACIVITY
Alzheimer’s disease
Genetics: Genetic conditions impacting on adults.
Genetic conditions occur as a result of an altered or faulty gene or set of genes.
Alzheimer disease is a progressive condition that impairs the functioning of the brain in areas such as memory, thinking and personality.
Alzheimer affects one in 25 Australians over the age of 60.
There is no cure for Alzheimer’s nor is there any way to prevent the onset of the disease.
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
Biological Determinants:
Body Weight
Cholesterol
Genetics
Genetic predisposition
Blood pressure
Age
Sex
DOT POINT:
Determinants of health and individual human development of Australia’s adults including at least one from each of the following: Biological, behavioural, Physical and Social environment.
WEEK 9-10
Apply your knowledge Q.2 & 3, P.261-262

Test your knowledge, P.265, Key concepts

Analyse the data as a key skill
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
The age group of 25-64 years represents 54 per cent of the population
The health behaviours of individuals in the first 25 years of their lives will set the foundation for the future.
Discuss table 8.2 & 8.3. Leading causes of death. Students complete data analysis
HEALTH STATUS OF AUSSIE ADULTS
DOT POINT:
The health status of Australia’s adults, including the similarities and differences between adult males and females.
WEEK 8
Case study: ‘A poem on ageing’, P.257, Key concepts.

Apply your knowledge: P.266, Q.6, Case study.
LEARNING ACTIVITIES: LATE ADULTHOOD
Intellectual development:
Gains can still be made in intellectual ability through life experiences, but there is a decline in information processing abilities.
Most intellectual abilities will start to decline slowly from about 70 years of age.
Research also suggests that the decline in intellectual ability, memory, knowledge and reaction time will be affected by the physiological changes associated with ageing such as decline in eyesight and hearing.
The ‘use it or loss it’ motto is real: practice may not only preserve existing skills, but also revive supposedly lost or declining skills.
LATE ADULTHOOD
Emotional development:
The transition from work to retirement is a significant social change and the impacts on emotional development can be enormous.
For many, coping with the change in routine, feelings of boredom, loneliness and loss requires a difficult adjustment.
Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health can create challenges and lead to frustration and anxiety.
Dealing with the death of a spouse
An individual with a limited support system may face further challenges related to loneliness and isolation
LATE ADULTHOOD
Social development:
Social development could be stimulated by retirement.
Coping with a reduced income, deciding what to do with the extra time, re-establishing the relationship with their partner (if they have one), and redefining household roles.
Many adults spend their time on home improvements, travelling, sporting interests, community activities and volunteering.
LATE ADULTHOOD
Factors such as genetics, quality of diet, level of physical activity and other lifestyle choices will determine the impact and speed of the changes associated with ageing.
By the age of 65, the average adult has experienced a 60 to 70 per cent decline in aerobic capacity since young adulthood.
Maintaining fitness throughout adulthood could reduce this decline to as little as 20 to 25 per cent.
LATE ADULTHOOD
During this phase the efficiency and working of the body systems continue to decline, and the physiological changes of older adulthood become more visible.
LATE ADULTHOOD
Test your knowledge: ‘Menopause’, P.Q. 4-7, P.254, Key concepts.

Apply your knowledge, Q.8, P.254 & Q.9, E book plus: ‘Brain training’ web link activity. Provide link fro students.
LEARNING ACTIVITY: MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Intellectual development:
During middle adulthood, knowledge is still being gained and the capacity to store knowledge and further build permanent memories is limitless.
The ability to process information and solve problems will generally improve.
Life experiences and maturity often give older people more wisdom than the young.
The onset of mental deterioration can be delayed if adults keep their minds active as long as possible.
Sudoku and crosswords can help achieve this.
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Adults need to cope with many challenges during this stage of their lives. They may face the possibility of unemployment and the impact it could have on their family.
Accepting, and adjusting to the physiological changes associated with ageing can be challenging.
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Emotional development:
Middle adulthood is characterised by self-confidence and an acceptance by the person of who they are and what they want to achieve
By this stage, an individual will have already experienced many successes and failures. The way they coped with these situations will have shaped their emotional development.
Interactions with family, work and community can influence self-concept.
Factors such as an unsuccessful relationship, job dissatisfaction and difficulty coping with the demands of parenthood can have an impact on the emotional development
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Social development:
Some aspects of social development that traditionally occurred in early adulthood are increasingly becoming part of middle adulthood due to the delay in selecting a life partner or getting married, setting up and managing a home and starting a family.
Learning how to relate to a spouse/partner and develop a successful relationship is a major aspect of social development
Some adults become grandparents
others their age are still engaged in parenting their own children and preparing them to become responsible and happy adults.
Adults will develop socially from their career achievements, meaningful relationships with their partner, other significant friendships and involvement in community groups.
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Physical development:
A gradual decline in many physiological functions may be evident from the age of 30.
MIDDLE ADULTHOOD
Case study: “Home and hosed”, P.246, Key concepts

Apply your knowledge Q.7, P.247, Key concepts

Apply your knowledge Q.5, P.250, ‘Internet dating’
LEARNING ACTIVITIES: EARLY ADULTHOOD
How well an individual copes with excitement, frustration, love, anger and so on are critical to that person’s emotional development.
The availability of good role models at work, at home and in the community will help to foster an individual’s self-concept.
Establishing a career and learning new roles and expectations will impact on employment status, job satisfaction, financial security and self-concept.
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Emotional development:
Good emotional development is the ability to understand and control the emotions, and to respond well to the changes taking place around and within the individual
Forming and maintaining relationships, in particular intimate relationships, will affect the development of self-concept.
Failed relationships or lack of support and encouragement from family, work or the community can lead to poor self-concept.
Formulating an identity and developing a sense of self are key components of early adulthood.
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Many young adults are staying in the family home longer and delaying living independently
Getting married and establishing a family is therefore often delayed. The median age for first marriages has increased, from 29 years in 1995 to 32 years in 2005 for men and from 27 years to 30 years for women.
Being involved in an intimate relationship, finding a permanent partner and starting a family
Acquiring new roles in early adulthood includes accepting the associated responsibilities and the challenge of learning some new skills, expected behaviours, values and attitudes.
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Social development:
Gaining independence and developing identity become the main focus
Could include: starting a career, selecting a life partner, getting married or learning to live with a partner, managing a home or starting a family.
Career choices could be affected by conforming to society expectations and what is considered appropriate.
Most young adults may be employed in part-time jobs to gain some financial independence as they study.
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Provide a table for students to complete. Write minimum 3 characteristics for each.
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Early adulthood: 19-40
Middle adulthood: 41-64
Late adulthood: 65-death

Watch DVD: ‘As time goes by’, BBC
STAGES OF ADULTHOOD
OUTCOME 2:
Adult health and development

KEY SKILLS:
Describe the stages of adulthood and ageing
Describe the characteristics of development during adulthood
Interpret data on the health status of Australia’s adults
Explain the determinants of health and individual human development and their impact on adults, using relevant examples
UNIT 2: INDIVIDUAL HEALTH DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES
The type of injury sustained determines the amount of time taken off work.
Fractures and stress related conditions generally require a longer period of time away from work.
Can impact on health and individual human development from the physical effects (e.g. reduced movement, pain and suffering) to the psychological stress associated with the prospect of never being able to work again. This puts financial and emotional strain on relationships
Worksafe Victoria is a state government agency that manages Victoria’s workplace safety system.
WORKPLACE SAFETY
Identify all the determinants that work together to be risk factors for Coronary Heart disease?
Provide examples P.278 Jac
Learning Activity
Physical development:
LATE ADULTHOOD
Intellectual development:
language skills, knowledge, memory skills and the ability to understand and reason are further developed.
Learning the skills and knowledge of a chosen career, requires a level of intellectual development
In the work environment, new employees will be inducted into the workplace and taught the necessary skills and information necessary to carry out their tasks
All roles acquired by an individual in their social life will further add to their experiences and provide them with knowledge and understanding.
An adult’s ability to reason, solve problems and strategise are all important components of intellectual development. It is experience gained over time that leads to a better understanding of the world
EARLY ADULTHOOD
Physical development:
Physiological changes
Most people in early adulthood see themselves as being at their peak in terms of health, lifestyle, sex life and physical condition.
EARLY ADULTHOOD
DOT POINT:
The different classifications of the stages of stages of adulthood.
Characteristics of physical development during adulthood, including the physiological changes associated with ageing
The social, emotional and intellectual development associated with the stages of adulthood and ageing.
WEEK 6-7
The internet allows adults to self diagnose health problems. This can be dangerous but also beneficial.
Can obtain abusive content or opportunities for predators to access people which can effect mental health
Can prevent people from having face to face social interactions (leads to isolation)
Prevent people from participating in the community
How does it create a negative influence?
Allows health messages to meet a large range of people. Helps to raise awareness and educate people of the risks. Media help to imbed these messages which can improve physical health and development
Can have a positive influence and a negative influence
Media can enhance intellectual skills (learn how to create blogs, wikis, twitter, learn new information) and provide opportunities for meeting new people
Profiles on social networking sites have allowed people to form new relationships, improving their social and mental health
Hoes does the Media influence health an human development?
All forms of Media have the potential to influence the actions, beliefs, values, opinions and ideas of adults.
Media can include the internet, newspapers, TV, books, video games, billboards, posters and text messages.
MEDIA
Case study: ‘Children that never say goodbye’, P.311-312, key concepts
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Living arrangements
What are the benefits for elderly to remain in their home?
What are the benefits to being in a nursing home or hostel?
Living with a partner may have a protective effect for many reasons, including having greater disposable income for material resources, the social support provided by a partner and the positive impact that partners may have on health behaviours
The emotional support that some parents may gain from having their adult children at home can enhance the parents’ social and mental health and individual human development.
Being single is associated with higher mortality than being married or living in a de facto relationship
Why might this be?
Living arrangements
Living arrangements: Adult children living at home
Living arrangements refer not only to the type of accommodation that an adult lives in but also to the number of people living together and the relationships between them.
young adults living at home are more likely to eat nutritious food prepared by their parents rather than buying prepared or packaged meals that are high in saturated fat, salt and sugar.
living at home may create a sense of dependence on their parents, which reduces opportunities for them to develop the skills required to live as independent adults.
Having adult children living at home can increase financial stress due to the cost of providing for their needs.
Having to care for adult children may impact on the mental health of parents if there is conflict with the children
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
E lesson: ‘Aussies working longer hours’, P.308, Key concepts.
Homework: Personal survey P.349
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Lowers self esteem, self concept and confidence
Shame, embarrassment and isolation
Depression, stress and anxiety
Risk of poverty
Lack of income means can’t afford social activities, nutritious food, education costs, bills etc
Creates social and family stress
Relationships breakdowns/conflict/violence
Drug abuse
Loss of skills
What are examples of this?
Case study analysis .244 Volunteering


What is the impact of work on a mothers health an development?
UNPAID WORK
Work-related stress affects the health of an adult in a variety of ways including:
depression
anxiety
feelings of being overwhelmed and unable to cope
sleeping difficulties
fatigue
headaches
heart palpitations
diarrhoea or constipation
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
How can work related stress impact on health and individual human development?
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
The workplace:
The working relationship that an adult has with colleagues has a significant impact on their health and individual human development.
Conflict between colleagues can have a negative impact
workplace stress costs the Australian economy $14.81 billion per year.
$10.4 billion is due to absenteeism and presenteeism. (Presenteeism is the loss of productivity that results from employees coming to work but, as a consequence of illness or other conditions, not functioning at full capacity
Factors such as long working hours, heavy workloads, change within the organisation, tight deadlines, lack of job security, boredom, harassment, discrimination, lack of autonomy and being over-supervised can also contribute to stress.
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
The Workplace
What are the possible benefits and the Consequences of being employed or in the work place?
Think, Pair and share
How do the ideas fit with Health and development?
Social Environment
Question:
Explain the possible impact on health and individual human development of a long term work-related injury
LEARNING ACTIVITY
The type of injury sustained determines the amount of time taken off work.
Fractures and stress related conditions generally require a longer period of time away from work.
Can impact on health and individual human development from the physical effects (e.g. reduced movement, pain and suffering) to the psychological stress associated with the prospect of never being able to work again. This puts financial and emotional strain on relationships
Worksafe Victoria is a state government agency that manages Victoria’s workplace safety system.
WORKPLACE SAFETY
While office jobs have a relatively low risk of injury, conditions related to overuse of technology are becoming more common.
Having to sit for hours in front of a computer may lead to back and neck pain, headaches, muscle and joint pain of the upper limbs, and eyestrain from having to look at the monitor for extended periods of time
Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) is a condition caused by repetitive movements that can affect the tendons and muscles of the hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, back and neck.
Research indicates that shift work is a risk factor for work-related injuries. The work-related injury rate for shift workers is approximately twice that of non-shift workers. Why?
WORKPLACE SAFETY
WORKPLACE SAFETY
Workplace safety:
There is a greater risk of workplace injuries and illnesses during adulthood.
Males have higher rates of injury than females
An injury rate of approx 64 people per 1000 employed people.
Young workers are more likely to sustain a work-related injury than an older worker.
The higher rate of injuries in these occupations is due to the physical nature of these jobs.
What occupations are likely to experience the highest rate of injury?
This is a major impact on Physical health!
How might a workplace injury impact on the mental and social health of people?
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of accidents and injury in a range of settings including motor vehicle and bicycle accidents, accidents involving pedestrians, falls, fires, drowning, sport and recreational injuries, alcohol poisoning, overdose, suffocation, choking on vomit, assault, violence and intentional self harm.
More adults die from alcohol-related road accidents and injuries than from alcohol-related cancers, cardiovascular disease and alcohol dependence combined.
ALCOHOL USE
Normal Blood pressure:
Less than 120/80
Normal-High blood pressure
Between 120/80 – 140/90
High Blood pressure
Equal to or more than 140/90mmHG
Very High blood pressure
Equal or more than 180/110mmhg
Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart muscle contracts and exerts blood
Diastolic pressure measures the minimum pressure on the arteries when the heart muscle relaxes and returns blood to the heart
Measures the force of the blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as Systolic and Diastolic measurements.
High blood pressure is known as Hypertension
Linked with a high intake of salt, lack of physical activity, high alcohol consumption and being overweight.
Blood Pressure
Identify all the determinants that work together to be risk factors for Coronary Heart disease?
Provide examples P.278 Jac
Learning Activity
Test your knowledge questions: Cholesterol
P.282, Q.1-5, Key concepts
LEARNING ACTIVITY
Limit foods high in saturated fats such as processed meats, full-fat dairy products, takeaway foods, deep-fried foods and cakes
Consume a wide variety of fresh fruit, vegetables and wholegrain foods
Choose low-fat varieties such as low- or reduced-fat milk, yogurt and cheese.
Choose lean meats or trim fat from meat.
Consume fish a couple of times a week (Polyunsaturated fats are sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fats)
Use polyunsaturated margarines instead of butter.
Consume nuts, legumes and seeds.
Limit cheese and ice-cream to no more than two serves a week.
Use salad dressings and mayonnaise made from oils such as canola and olive oils.
Limit cholesterol-rich foods such as egg yolks and offal (liver, kidney, brains).
CHOLESTEROL
How can we reduce cholesterol?
High cholesterol levels can be an inherited condition. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is passed on by the genes inherited from parents.
It is a condition that affects one in every 300 Australians and is responsible for up to 10 per cent of heart disease that occurs before the age of 55.
Trans fatty acids can be damaging as they raise LDL levels and lower HDL levels.
The trans fatty acids that need to be reduced are the ones that are manufactured in table margarines and solid spreads used to make baked products such as pies, pastries and cakes.
CHOLESTEROL
Cholesterol becomes a health concern when there is too much of it in the blood.
High blood-cholesterol levels, particularly LDLs, are one of the three main risk factors for heart disease.
The liver is where the processing of cholesterol occurs. When saturated fats are consumed, the cholesterol that is not processed by the liver is returned to the bloodstream to build up on the artery walls.
Levels can be reduced through lifestyle modifications, including reducing alcohol intake, not smoking, exercising regularly, controlling weight and consuming a healthy diet.
CHOLESTEROL
Blood cholesterol:
Cholesterol is a type of fat
It produces hormones, assists with digestion through the production of bile acids and is an essential component of cell membranes.
It occurs in two forms: high- density lipoproteins (HDLs) and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs).
HDL cholesterol is referred to as the ‘good’ cholesterol as it can help unclog arteries by removing excess LDLs out of the cells.
LDL cholesterol, are referred to as ‘bad’ cholesterol because it can cause fatty substances to build up on the arterial walls (atherosclerosis) and block the blood vessels leading to a heart disease or a stroke.
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
E lesson
Predicting Alzheimers.
LEARNING ACIVITY
Alzheimer’s disease
Genetics: Genetic conditions impacting on adults.
Genetic conditions occur as a result of an altered or faulty gene or set of genes.
Alzheimer disease is a progressive condition that impairs the functioning of the brain in areas such as memory, thinking and personality.
Alzheimer affects one in 25 Australians over the age of 60.
There is no cure for Alzheimer’s nor is there any way to prevent the onset of the disease.
BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
Biological Determinants:
Body Weight
Cholesterol
Genetics
Genetic predisposition
Blood pressure
Age
Sex
Apply your knowledge Q.2 & 3, P.261-262

Test your knowledge, P.265, Key concepts

Analyse the data as a key skill
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
DOT POINT:
The health status of Australia’s adults, including the similarities and differences between adult males and females.
WEEK 8
Case study: ‘A poem on ageing’, P.257, Key concepts.

Apply your knowledge: P.266, Q.6, Case study.
LEARNING ACTIVITIES: LATE ADULTHOOD
For elderly Australians, where they live is often dependent on their level of health.
For many living in the comfort of their own home is important for them but ill-health may impact on their ability to live independently
What type of activities may be difficult for the elderly?
What are the risks to their health?
Living arrangements
Living arrangements
What types of living arrangements are there?
Why might adult children live at home?
Is this healthy for all involved?
Social Environment
What are the negative effects of unemployment?
UNEMPLOYMENT
The Workplace
Work or employment has many benefits
Lead to a sense of pride and achievement
Feelings of belonging and connectedness
Feelings of worth and self esteem
Work can form a big part of some ones identity
Is this always the case?
Social Environment
Alcohol use:
Alcohol is the most widely used and accepted recreational drug in Australia
In the 65–74 year age group, almost 600 people die annually as a result of drinking related illness or injury, and a further 6500 are hospitalised.
Moderate intake of alcohol (no more than two drinks per day) may contain health benefits for older people, particularly men over 40 years of age and women over 50.
Red wine, is considered to be beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease due to the anti-oxidants it contains.
BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS
Dr Norman Swan’s Cholesterol Check
E lesson
DOT POINT:
Determinants of health and individual human development of Australia’s adults including at least one from each of the following: Biological, behavioural, Physical and Social environment.
WEEK 9-10
The age group of 25-64 years represents 54 per cent of the population
The health behaviours of individuals in the first 25 years of their lives will set the foundation for the future.
Discuss table 8.2 & 8.3. Leading causes of death. Students complete data analysis
HEALTH STATUS OF AUSSIE ADULTS
Read the article 'Home and Hosed' and complete the questions in your book

Then do the personal research living task.
When will you move out?
1. What is 'menopause'?
2. Outline the main physical changes that take place during menopause.
3. Suggest how the physical changes during menopause can affect a females's social and emotional development.
4. Females experience menopause, but do males go through any changes in their reproductive functioning? Explain
Learning Activity
Brain Training
http://www.brainmetrix.com/intelligence-definition/
Go to the link below and play around with some of the brain training tools.
How do you think scores will differ on these tests as adults move into middle or late adulthood?
Read "A poem on ageing" and answer the questions.
Learning Activity
Case Study
Grace is a 68-year-old grandmother of two. She lives alone after the death of her husband four years ago. Grace tries to keep busy. She baby-sits her grandchildren, enjoys baking and feels good when she can help her two daughters cope with their busy lives. On three days a week she attends the local gym for the ‘Live longer, live stronger’ program. Her strength and physical endurance have improved significantly since she started six months ago. After the class, the participants (all over the age of 60) sit and have a drink together and socialise. Grace has participated in group activities with the class, including a ‘Christmas in July’ lunch and a trip to the local market. Grace has made some wonderful friendships and looks forward to these sessions.
1. Analyse Grace's activities and identify the different types of development (physical, social, emotional, intellectual) that each provide.
2. What other community resources are available for older adults to help keep them actively involved after their retirement?
Full transcript