Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Stress and the Levels of Analysis

Presentation of stress and the different levels of analysis used to explain human psychology in IB Psychology class.
by

Derek Miller

on 30 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Stress and the Levels of Analysis

Biological
Cognitive
Socio-Cultural
Stress and LEVELS OF ANALYSIS
Stress and Predisposition
Cognition and Emotion
Topic: Cognitive and Emotion:
Page: 22
We will...
To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion (for example, two factor theory, arousal theory)?
Finish Culture and Education
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Emotional Expression
Preview:
For the preview on L22 be prepared to write down what emotions you are experiencing as we watch the scene
"Evaluations" Page:
On L22 Analysis of the Impact of Cognition on Emotion
Note: Read section 4.10 (94-96) in the Jamison Reader; Do Summary of Eckman & Freisen (1972)
Integrating Biology and Cognition
Emotional Expression
Paul Eckman and Others
Eckman and Freisen (1972)
Cross-Cultural Nature of Emotional Expression
Eckman (2003)
Facial Affect Program
* Biologically-based
* Facial features... primary emotions
Topic: Cognitive and Emotion:
Page: 22
We will...
To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion (for example, two factor theory, arousal theory)?
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Emotional Expression
Preview:
For the preview on L22 be prepared to write down what emotions you are experiencing as we watch the scene
"Evaluations" Page:
On L22 Analysis of the Impact of Cognition on Emotion
Note: Quiz - Cognition & Emotion, Mon., 11/21
Integrating Biology and Cognition
Eckman, Matsumoto
Culture Display Rules
Ex. Disgust & medical students
Matsumoto & Juang (2008)
Emotion =
facial affect program
+
display rules
Topic: Culture:
Page: 26
We will...
Define the terms “culture” and “cultural norms”; Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour (for example, individualism/collectivism). Using one or more examples, explain "emic" and "etic" concepts.
Sociocultural LOA Writing Two
Ingroup Activity
Defining Culture
Cultural Dimensions (Triandis, 1995)
Preview:
For the Preview on L26 write down your answer to the following question(s):
Who or what has had the most influence in the formation of your attitudes and opinions about people of different cultural groups? In what way?
"Evaluations" Page:
On L26 Evaluation of use of Individualist/Collectivist Dimensions of Culture to explain behavior.
Note: Read 5.11 in Jamison Reader for next class; Sociocultural LOA Quiz - Culture, Fri., 1/20
Cultural Norms and Dimensions
Culture
Matsumoto & Juang (2008):
"A unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life."
Enculturation
Cultural Norms
rules or expectations of BEHAVIOR of a cultural group
Dimensions of Culture
Harry Triandis (1995):
Individualism
Collectivism
"One way of thinking about these constructs is that we are all collectivists but some of us are also individualists"
Goals
Norms
Relationships
Attribution Process
Consider the following:
Your date fails to show up for your date.

You see a woman on the street and she appears to be homeless

You are cut off on the interstate by a driver trying to get to an exit

You fail an exam in a class
Fritz Heider (1958):
...how we interpret and explain behavior of ourselves and others
Social Cognition:
Dispositional Attributions
Situational Attributions
Errors in Attribution:
** Behavior attributed to
internal
(personal) factors
** Behavior attributed to
external
(environmental) factors
Which better explains what happened in the Stanford Prison Experiment?
Topic: Sociocultural Cognition:
Page: 27
We will...
Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour; Discuss two errors in attributions (for example, fundamental attribution error,
selfserving bias).
Quiz - Dimensions of Culture
Errors of Attribution
Preview:
"Evaluations" Page:
On L27 Use Dimensions of Culture to Evaluate Errors of Attribution.
Note: Read 5.14 in Jamison Reader for next class
Attribution Process
Look over your notes for Culture and Dimensions of Culture, including any evaluations you gave of each. Prepare to turn L25 or 26.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Self-Serving Bias
(inspired by Jones and Harris, 1967, experiment)
tendancy to OVERESTIMATE the role of
dispositional
factors (and UNDERESTIMATE
situational
factors)
Why do we do this?
- Cultural Dimensions Connection?
- Just-World Hypothesis (Lerner, 1977)
- Salience of the Actor
- Schemas and Judgments?
Fiske & Taylor (2008) - individualists more likely to do this; other studies inconclusive
Ex. Lee, et. al. (1977)
tendency to attribute personal SUCCESS to
dispositional
factors (and personal FAILURE to
situational
factors)
Why do we do this?
- Cultural Dimensions Connection?
- Enhance the Self, Self-Worth
- Defensive Attributions (to counter bad situations) (Fiske, 2004)
Ex. Higgins and Bhatt (2001) Cross-Cultural Study
Background
Self-Serving Bias shown in research on Western participants
Individualists emphasize the self; Collectivists the context
Etics...
Locus of Control, Controllability, Stability
Indian University Students
Canadian University Students
Compared explanations of causes for life events using Attribution Scale
BOTH groups used the self-serving bias to explain negative events
Higher correlation to explaining events (positive and negative) in terms of CONTEXT
Higher correlation to explaining postive events in terms of SELF
Self-Serving Bias is an ETIC with EMIC features
Topic: Sociocultural Cognition:
Page: 27
We will...
Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour; Discuss two errors in attributions (for example, fundamental attribution error,
selfserving bias).
Sociocultural LOA: Writing Three
Errors of Attribution
Social Identity Theory
Preview:
"Evaluations" Page:
On L27 Use Dimensions of Culture to Evaluate Errors of Attribution.
Note: Read 5.14 in Jamison Reader for next class
Attribution Process
LPrepare for completing a Writing over the Attribution Process
Sociocultural Norms:
Conformity and Compliance
Understanding Conformity
Ethnographies support this notion
- Aggression of Dugum Dani of New Guinea (Bandura, 1973)
Asch (1955)
Between 1955 and 1994, 94 experiments used Asch's original model; 17 of these were cross-cultural
Bond & Smith (1996) Meta-Analysis
133 Studies from 17 Countries Analyzed (though most from U.S.)
Studies used Asch's format (and included female participants)
Conformity higher with larger groups, females included, high ambiguity and majority is in-group
Conformity has declined since 1950s
Conformity higher closer one is to collectivism
Stress and Physiology
Friedman & Rosenman
- San Francisco cardiologists who first studied connection between Personality and Stress Reaction
- Found correlation between Type A Personalities and heart disease
- Possible link between inborn temperament and stress reaction
Diathesis-Stress Model
- developed in 1960s to explain schizophrenia
- Biological predisposition PLUS environmental stressors EQUALS...
Twin Studies
Bouchard et al. (1990)
"Minnesota Study of Twins"
General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selye (1956)
Neuroplasticity and Technology
Small and Vorgan (2008)
"Techno-brain Burnout"
used
fMRI
to measure brain activity
Strengths
Clearer and Safer than PET Scans
Localizes brain activity
Combines with other tools
Weaknesses
Expensive
May not measure actual brain activity
Stress and the Neuroendocrine System
Glucocorticoids
Hormones
Other Steroids
stress hormones
help trigger "fight or flight" response
Ex. Cortisol
influence gene transcription
influence development
Ex. Testosterone
Robert Sapulsky (2004)
Neurotransmitters
serotonin
Robert Sapolsky (2004)
levels are impacted by cortisol release
norepinephrine
and
Stress, Cognition and Emotion
Lazarus' Appraisal Theory of Emotion
primary appraisal:
relevance and meaning
secondary appraisal:
coping strategies considered
Transactional Model of Stress
Lazarus and Folkman (1975)
Emotion and Memory
Flashbulb Memories
Finkenauer & colleagues (1997)...
distinctly vivid,
precise, long-lasting,
of personal circumstances
surrounding shocking events
Finkenauer and Colleagues (1998)
Emotional-Integrative Model (of flashbulb memories)
Roger Brown and James Kulik (1977)
1st to coin term "flashbulb memories"
PHOTOGRAPHIC theory of FB
Classic study using a questionnaire about assassination (or failed attempt) of 9 historical figures AND death of personal acquaintance
Participants - 40 blacks, 40 whites
Measured: 1) consequentiality and 2) rehearsal
Compared these between historical figures and personal acquaintance
Consequentiality higher for personal acquaintances over historical figures, EXCEPT...
Dimensions of Culture
Edward T. Hall (1959):
Time Orientation
Monochronic
Polychronic
Jones and Brown (2005)
Why Conform? A Possible "Thread"
Normative Social Influence
Groupthink
Cognitive Dissonance
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)
Full transcript