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Transcript of Antarctica
Antarctica is located in the Southern Hemisphere and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. Its longitude is 0.00° East and its latitude is 90° South.Antarctica is one of the coldest place on earth.
Antarctica does not belong to any country but it is governed under the 'The Antarctic Treaty'.The Antarctic Treaty which has been signed by 46 countries. There are seven countries that have territorial claims to Antarctica's continent, but none of them own it. they are officially claimed by Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway, Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom. Brazil has made an unofficial claim, and Nazi Germany has an historic claim.
The Arctic is the area around the North Pole and Antarctica is the area around the South Pole. The Arctic is not actually land it is combination of ice and water.Also arctic is on the top of the world and Antarctica is on the bottom.
One of the greatest exploration to Antarctica is a man named Sir James Clark Ross.In the 19th century many explorers , whalers and sealers knew about Antarctica.They didn't want to come because of its dangerous things surrounding Antarctica.James Clark Ross thought Antarctica was a place for adventure . so in 1839 he took two ships, the HMS Erebus and the HMS Terror, .By sailing around the coastlines of the continent, Ross was possibly the first to find that Antarctica was a continent, not just lots of islands.Ross found the Victoria Barrier, a massive ice shelf that was later named after him called the Ross sea.He returned to England in 1843
The Antarctic treaty is to make sure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purpose and for scientific research .No military bases or weapon testing is allowed.Any nation is free to do scientific research as long as they share their research with the rest of the world. The Treaty was originally signed in 1959. The original nations were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the USSR, the United Kingdom, and the U.S .
The greeks were the 1st people to came up with "Antarctica" . They already knew about arctic - named Arktos - meaning bear .They named it the opposite of bear "no bear" .They never actually went there, it was just a lucky guess!
1772 to 1775
captain cook and his crew was the first people to cross the Antarctic circle
Fabian Belinghausen saw Antarctica for the first time
Captain James Weddell sailed 74° 15 S & found the weddell ice sheet and sea.
Captain James Clark Ross of Victoria Land , sighted Mount Erebus and found the Ross Sea and Ross ice shelf
Otto Nordenskjold a swedish geologist and 5 other men went on the 1st exploration to Aantarctica by sledge.Thier ship was crushed and had to spend 2 winters in Antarctic.
1907 to 1909
Ernest Shakleton led the British Antarctic Expidition on the "Nimrod" to reach the south pole
Timeline Part 2
Sir Douglas Mawson led the Australian Antarctic Expidition aboard the "aurora".
Ernest Shakleton led the Antarctic expedition on the Endurance.
Roald Amudsen and 4 other men were the first to reach the southpole 12 December 1911
First women in Antarctica Caroline Mikklesen.
In 1959the Antarctic treaty was signed
The last dogs removed from Antarctica in February 22nd 1994
my information report
King penguins live on islands in north of Antarctica. Even if their habitat is warmer than the emperor penguins, king penguins have four layers of feathers and huddle together for warmth.
The second-largest penguin specie is the King Penguin similar appearance the to Emperor Penguin. The king penguins cheeks are dark orange. The belly is white the back is more of a grey than black. Juveniles are similar to adults, but with dull coloured feathers . Ear patches are pale yellow rather than orange and the throat is grey-white.
The King Penguin eats plenty of meat items daily. They enjoy feeding on krill, small fish, squid, and a variety of crustaceans.King Penguins mainly like to consume a type of fish called lantern fish but they will eat other things if they can’t find enough of it in their habitat.
Eggs are laid from November to April.King penguins breed in two years out of three. Both parents look after the egg and brooding of the chick, which takes approximately 15 weeks. King penguins have no nests and their eggs are incubated (produce) on the adults’ feet. Chicks are fully feathered after nine months. Fighting among birds in these colonies is rare.
In the sea the main predators of king penguins are killer whales and leopard seals. During breeding the colonies are raided by skuas and giant petrels which take eggs and chicks.
The continent of Antarctica has stayed in the South Pole for the past 120 million years. It was once part of a huge continent called Gondwana.Around 40 million years ago, Africa, India, Australia, and South America were all moving away from Antarctica. The moving of the continent resulted in a new ocean around Antarctica.the ocean developed a
strong current that flows in a circle around the continent. The fast-moving cold water blocked warmer water from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans from reaching Antarctica’s
shores .Temperatures in Antarctica began to fall down and they remained low enough that
snow began to increase and ice sheets began to grow
Changes over time
Effects In Global Warming Over The Past 50 Years
Over the past 50 years, the west coast of Antarctica has been one of the most quickest warming parts of the planet.ANNUAL mean temperatures have risen by nearly 3°C, with the largest warming occurring in the winter season. This is approximately 10 times the rate of global warming.the east coast of the Peninsula has warmed more slowly and here the largest warming has taken place in summer and autumn.
Tourism in Antarctica
The number of antarctic tourists has increased from a couple hundred in 1969 to over 20,000 at the start of the new millennium.in 1991 the antarctic excursion directors found the "International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO" an organization that manages environmentally sound cruises to help protect Antarctica's environment
If you are adventurous and outdoorsy, a dive boat is for you. Loaded with assorted scuba gear, the boat's main purpose is to support diving. Mountain climbing, camping, and kayaking are other activities associated with dive boat trips.
Considered a more academic experience than most excursions, these ships best suit natural history and cultural buffs. With a crew of a 10 to 12 people with a wide variety of expertise, these ships cruise along isolated waterways. Most expeditions offer high-quality accommodations.
Also suitable for natural history and culture buffs, icebreakers are for people who love exploring, discovering, and learning. these vessels cut through ice, giving passengers access to some of Antarctica's most remote places, such as Far South, a region where emperor penguin colonies reside, is only accessible by icebreakers. Educational programs are available. Traveling by icebreaker means a longer time at sea, and consequently more expensive than some other options.
tourism in Antarctica
These ships are family-oriented, with no more than 20 passengers on board at a time. Very comfortable and highly accommodating for family adventures off-ship. A captain, a deck hand, one naturalist guide in charge of the expedition, and a cook are designated to each ship.
: Originally built for polar research, these boats are not luxurious. The tours, however, do provide fun, activity-based programs that appeal to a more youthful crowd. Because these ships carry only a small number of passengers.
Best for those who want a relaxing trip around Antarctica to enjoy its landscape, small-ship cruises are similar to more traditional tourist trips.
Tourism In Antarctica
Things You Need To Bring To Antarctica
wind proof and water proof jackets
gloves (thick ones)
turtle neck shirts
socks - heavy wool or synthetic blend (2 pairs minimum)
gloves or mittens (ski type)
thermal, wool, or synthetic underwear, medium or heavy weight
sweat pants and sweat shirt
sun-blocking lip care
first aid kit, including prescription medications
the impacts in Antarctica's environment are global warming, ozone depletion and global contamination caused by the application of technology elsewhere in the world.Another reason is the impacts of fishing and hunting.Also the impact of tourists and scientists polluting the cold and dry dessert