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RA & OA

Rheumatoid Arthritis & Osteoarthritis
by

Derek Dinh

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of RA & OA

Rheumatoid Arthritis & Osteoarthritis Alex McIver & Derek Dinh Normal and
Arthritic Joints OA RA A joint is where two bones meet to enable movement of the body. Each joint is surrounded by a capsule that is lined with synovium. Synovium is a tissue that nourishes the joint and contains no white blood cells and few blood vessels. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder that mainly affects the synovial joint In RA, the synovium is usually attacked by the immune system first. How are joints affected by RA White blood cells enter the synovium from the blood stream and small blood vessels also infiltrate the area. As a result, the synovial membrane becomes thick and inflamed causing tissue growth. The inflammation also release substances that cause pain, swelling and joint damage and harm surrounding cartilage, bone, tendons and ligaments. This is a breakdown of the bone resulting in a fibrous connective tissue. The results are complete joint immobility Osteoarthritis shows: How joints are affected by OA Loss of articular cartilage Thickening of subchondral bone Bony outgrowths at joint margins Mild, chronic nonspecific synovial inflammation There is no clear cause of OA, however daily stresses applied to weight-bearing joints play an important role in the development of OA. Causes of OA Research suggests that there are some factors that put an individual at a higher risk of developing OA in certain joints: Knees
Being overweight
A previous knee injury
Jobs that involve frequent kneeling, climbing and squatting Hips
Being overweight
A previous hip injury
Jobs that involve lifting heavy loads Hands
A history of OA in the family (genetics). Causes of RA The exact cause of RA is not well understood, other than that, it is triggered by an autoimmune process. Genetics
Individuals with RA often have family members or close relatives with the disease. Family members are 3-4 times more likely to develop RA than the general populations. Environmental agents
An infectious agent such as a virus or bacterium may cause the body’s immune system to attack it’s own tissues and become autoimmune. However, further research is required. Lifestyle
Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing RA than non smokers. However, the effect of smoking and the development of RA is not greatly understood but may be due to smoking resulting in abnormalities in the body’s white blood cells. Which joints are affected in RA RA is more likely to affect joints of the hand, wrist and toes, particularly: The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints—the row of knuckles on the hand closest to the wrist The proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints—the second (or middle) row of knuckles on the hand The wrist joints The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints—the row of joints at the base of the toes As the disease progresses, joints in the shoulders, knees, ankles and both elbows are likely to be affected Which joints are affected in OA The most commonly affected joints are at: Hands (ends of the fingers, closest to the nail, and thumbs) Hips Knees (body’s primary weight-bearing joint) Spine (neck or lower back) Osteoarthritis affects different people differently where it may progress quickly, but for most people, joint damage develops gradually over years. Who is affected by RA RA is the second most common form of arthritis in Australia (behind osteoarthritis) and is the most common autoimmune disease. In 2010, 428,000 Australians had been diagnosed with RA, with 60% of these female RA is most prevalent in females aged 65 to 74 years old The incidence of RA is more common between the ages of 30 and 65 years An estimated 1% of the world’s population are believed to have RA Who is affected by OA OA is the most common form of arthritis in Australia In 2010, an estimated 1.6 million Australians had been diagnosed with OA, with almost two-thirds of them female OA is most prevalent in females aged 75 years and older Symptoms RA OA Pain & stiffness of the joints Morning stiffness lasts more than 1 hours Morning stiffness lasts less than 30 mins Stiffness occurs after periods of rest and improves after movements Stiffness tends to get worse later in the day after movements Movement decreases pain Movement increases pain Symmetrical (the same joints on both sides of the body are affected Asymmetrical (single joint on one side of the body is affected RA OA Systemic symptoms are not present Can affect the major organs of the body including eye, skin, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, nervous system, or blood. Rheumatoid Arthritis 3 stages of RA: Early stage Established stage Late stage 3 months to 1 year At least 1 joint swelling Chronicity (duration of > 6 weeks) No erosion Morning stiffness (lasting several mins) Painful MCP or MTP compression At least one joint swelling Treatment and Management RA OA Medication Diet and weight control Exercise Rest Mental health management strategies Use of assistive devices Surgery
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