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Music & Math

The music and math connection!

Jennifer Schmidt

on 13 May 2010

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Transcript of Music & Math

Music and Math History Math Music Connection (Jones, 2009) Early Music Ancient (before 500)- Improvisational Medieval (500-1450)-
Chanting Renaissance(1450-1600)-
indrouction of musical lines Baroque (1600-1750)- Opera & Funtional Tonality How did I get here? Orginal Idea Drama & Reading Reader's Theatre
improves Reading (McComb, 1995) (McComb, 1995) (McComb, 1995) (McComb, 1995) (Roser & Strecker, 1999) Do any other core subjects
have any connections with the arts? New Idea Math & Music What is the impact of participation in music education on academic achievement? Final Question: Lets Explore Music as we know it Classical (1750-1820):
Strict laws of
balance and restraint Romantic (1820-1920):
Composers used elements
of folk music to express
their cultural identity Modern/20th Century (1900-Present): Hard to define,uses advances within to technology. Research (Music history, n.d.) (Music history, n.d.) Fleix,Mendelssohn-Bartholdy Numbers Patterns Ratios (Music history, n.d.) (Garland & Kahn, 1995) Fraction: Numerator Denominator The relation of one thing to another in size (Garland & Kahn, 1995) Basis for naming the differnt kinds of notes (Garland & Kahn, 1995) 1/2 1/4 + = 3/4 The same as the time signature must create each measure to match time signature. (Garland & Kahn, 1995) A repeating realtionship (image or thing) (Garland & Kahn, 1995) 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 What am I saying? Do students who have an understanding of music have better academic achievement in mathematics? Because of the basic mathematical patterns and ratios they have been exposed to within the music structure Improvement No Conclusion (Cox & Stephens, 2006) Study 1: The Effect of Musical Participation on Mathematical Achievement and Overall Academic Achievement of High School Students Background: The purpose of this research was to investiate whether the number of music credits a student has earned is related to their math grade point average (GPA) or to their cumulative GPA at the high school level. (Cox & Stephens, 2006) How they did it: Collected data from high school student's transcripts for the academic year of 2002-2003. (Cox & Stephens, 2006) Results: From this study, no conclusion of the exact effects of music on math GPA's and cumulative GPA's can be made. Limitations: (Cox & Stephens, 2006) Small sample size (only one high school was observed) & the school only offered band and choir. (Cox & Stephens, 2006) Study 2: Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) Background: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in contrasting school music programs and standardized test scores. (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) How they did it: Collect state standardized test scores from 2004-2005, from elementary and middle school students all over the country. A total of 4,739 participants were observed. Results: The statistically strong relationship shown in this study is simply that--a strong relationship. Elementary students with excellent music programs overall scored 20% better compared to schools with limited music programs or no music programs. Middle school students with excellent music programs overall scored 33% better compard to schools with limited music progrmas or no music programs. Limitations: (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) Limited sample size, the variation in the state standardized tests (the article did cite that "As a result of NCLB the standardization of K-12 assessments has been standaridized to a considerable degree." (Johnson & Memmott, 2006, p. 4) What other studies say... (Catterall, Cahpleau, & Iwanaga, 1999) Champions of Change:The Impact of the Arts on Learning * Observed approximately 25,000 students over the course of 10 years. Results indicated that, regardless of socioeconomic background, secondary school students involved in music had significantly higher standardized test scores--specifically mathematics proficiency--than students not involved in music. Overall, what does this mean? The evidence does suggest that having music as a part of the curriculum helps to eliminate those lower GPA's found in those with few to no music credits. But... The Effects of Music Instructinoal Technique on the Mathematical Achievement of Thrid-Grade Students * Gregory (1988), compared six classes of third graders who were taught math via music to six class who were taught math via traditional methods. The music-intergrated classes showed significant gains compared to the control groups. The music integrated classes used the "Leap in Music" curriculum to integrated math and music. (Gregory, 1988) (Cox & Stephens, 2006) A large majority of studies concluded that music does show some postive effects on mathematical achievement. The effects maybe statistically small or insignificant however, no studies have found no effect or a negative effect. (Johnson & Memmott, 2006) My Opinion: I believe there is a connection between Math & Music I do believe students who have participated in music have better math achievement test scores compared to those who do not. I also, believe it is unrealistic in a general education classrooms to have teachers just start using music to teach math. My argument is for schools not to cut "the arts" out of the budget because it is to their advantage for students to score higher on standardized tests. Can this knowledge be useful to a General Education Teacher? Yes! Differentiation of Instruction
If you have a student who is gifted in music but struggles with math, you may make the connection for him/her to the links between the two subjects. Providing instruction that relates to something the studenet has already mastered. Cross Curriculum Connections As future teachers, we are taught to strengthen students understanding by making cross curriculum connections. Why not start making these connections with music. Work with your school's music instructor to create lessons that integrate music and math, so that your students may make those cross curriculum connections. (Schmidt, 2009) (Carolan & Guinn, 2007) (Burden & Byrd, 2009) Connection (McComb, 1995) The End
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