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Basic Human Anatomy & Physiology
Transcript of Basic Human Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy & Physiology
As an EMR, we need a basic understanding of anatomy and physiology to better understand the effects of illness or injury, to provide appropriate emergency care, and to communicate with other health care providers.
Aike F. Putian, RN
Fire & Emergency Services
US Navy Support Facility - Diego Garcia
Uses simple knowledge of the anatomy and function of the upper airway, heart, vessels, blood, lungs, skin, muscles, and bones as the foundation of emergency care.
After this presentation, you should be able to :
Describe the basic structure and functions of the major systems of the human body
Define key terms introduced in this presentation
Describe the life support chain.
I. Lymphatic / Immune
K. Reproductive (Male/Female)
The Human Body
The study of structure, or more simply, how the body part looks. It can be divided into three general types: Topographic, gross and microscopic.
The study of function, or how the body part works. A major concept is homeostasis, the body's state of balance between all body processes.
Provides the basic framework for support of the body.
Protects many of your vitals organs.
Bones in skeleton consist of both living tissue and non-living materials.
There are 206 bones in adult skeleton.
Bones are attached to each other by
of the skeleton
The skull consists of several bones that form the cranium and the face, composed of several bones that are fused together to form a vault that protects the brain.
Consists of 33 individual bones called vertebrae (singular:
Commonly called the rib cage, is made up of 12 pairs of ribs that are attached posteriorly to the thoracic spine.
Commonly called the pelvis, consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The pelvic girdle is the point of attachment for the lower extremities.
The shoulder girdle consists of the clavicle, commonly called the collarbone, and scapula (shoulder blade).
Consist of arms, lower arm, wrist, and hand.
Consist of the leg, lower leg, ankle, and foot.
When two or more bones meet, they form a
3 major categories
The muscular system works in conjunction with the skeletal system to provide support for the body and movement. Because the two systems have such an interdependent relationship, they are often referred to as the
There are 600 muscles in the body
There is a nerve attached to each muscle, and when stimulated causes the muscle to contract.
Muscles attached to bones by
3 types of
Also called as skeletal or striated muscle, these muscles are under voluntary control. They are attached to the bones of the skeleton and permit movement.
Also called smooth muscle, we have no or very little control over involuntary muscle. These muscles are stimulated to contract without our conscious thought.
is only found in the heart, it has special features that allow it to generate its own stimulus to contract and to rapidly respond to the demands upon to the circulatory system.
Responsible for bringing air into the lungs, where the needed oxygen is exchanged with the waste product carbon dioxide
mechanical process of moving air in and out of the body.
refers to exchange of gases in the cells.
also called inhalation, occurs when the respiratory system takes air into the body.
also called exhalation, occurs when the respiratory system expels air from the body.
the respiratory system
The cardiovascular system consists of the :
which pumps the blood throughout the body
which carry the blood from the heart to the tissues and then back to the heart
which carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries carbon dioxide and waste products from the cells for elimination.
on the surface of heart are the
supply the heart muscle with it's circulation
carry blood away from the heart, have a thick muscular wall that allows them to contract and regulate the flow of blood
carry blood back to the heart
very thin blood vessels where the exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes between the blood and the cells occurs.
2 major components
yellowish liquid in which blood cells are suspended.
red blood cells
which carry oxygen to the cells
white blood cells
which fights infection
components that help in blood clotting
The nervous system receives, interprets, and responds to the various stimuli by coordinating the activities of the various organ systems.
It consists of sensory nerves, which receive the information from various receptors; interconnected or interpretive nerves, which interpret and analyze sensory input and determine an appropriate response; and motor nerves, which carry out the appropriate response.
Nervous system is divided into:
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
consists of the brain and spinal cord
contains all the nerves that transmit messages to and from the central nervous system
autonomic nervous system
also called voluntary, nervous system is responsible for those aspects we have control over, such as body movements.
also called involuntary, nervous system is responsible for those aspects we have no or little control over, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and digestion.
consists of the skin, hair, and nails. The skin protects the body from the environment. It is our first line of defense against infection and helps regulate our body temperature.
3 major layers
the outermost layer, gives the skin its color and consists mainly dead skin cells.
The middle layer, contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, oil glands, and sensory nerves
The innermost layer, mainly composed of fat. The thickness of this layer will vary from individual to individual and from body region to body region
responsible for the processing of food, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes.
Digestion incorporates two processes:
includes chewing, swallowing, the rhythmic movement of material through the digestive tract (peristalsis), and elimination of wastes (defecation)
includes the release of various chemicals throughout the digestive tract to assist in the breakdown of material and the absorption of nutrients.
digestive system diagram
responsible for the filtration of the blood, removing excess water, salts, minerals, and other waster products. It also helps in the regulation of blood pressure.
URINARY SYSTEMS CONSISTS OF
serve as filters
which carry the urine and waste from the kidneys to urinary bladder
which holds the urine until elimination
which carries the urine from the urinary bladder for elimination.
helps defend the body against infection and disease and returns tissue fluids back to the bloodstream.
You may have noticed swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck, when you come down with a respiratory infection. This is due to the increased amount of white blood cells in the lymph nodes used to fight the infection.
consists of various glands that release chemicals called
help to regulate various body systems and processes.
affect the physical and mental abilities, reproduction and behavior
is responsible for the development of specialized cells and structures designed to create and protect the developing fetus until birth.
2 vas deferens
where the sperm are produced
which carry the sperm from the testicles
Prostate gland and Bulbourethral gland
delivers semen during intercourse
where the ovum are stored
carry the ovum from the ovaries and where fertilization usually occurs
where the fetus develops
receives semen during intercourse; birth canal
life support chain
Life is dependent on a consistent chain of events to provide the gases and nutrients our bodies need and to eliminate the carbon dioxide and waste products our bodies do not need.
factors may interfere with this process
composition of ambient air
condition of the respiratory system
condition of the circulatory system
condition of the tissues and cells
ventilation & respiration
Intake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to/from the cells
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the cells
necessary components of life.
The best possible patient outcome occurs when all the components of the response -- the lay public, the EMRs, the EMT's/AEMTs/Paramedics, and the emergency physicians, nurses, and support staff -- work together for the good of the patient. Likewise, the various body systems must all work together for the good of the body. Any breakdown in the coordination of these body systems may result in injury, illness, or even death.