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The ABC's of AP Psych

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Eileen McTigue

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of The ABC's of AP Psych

THE A B C 's of AP PSYCH BY EILEEN MCTIGUE
PERIOD 8 A IS FOR... B AMYGDALA: two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system that are linked to emotion. It is also linked to danger, fear, and most importantly, the memory of fear. unit 2 ACCOMADATION: adapting our current understandings, or schemas, to incorporate new information. An example of this is seeing a dog, and then seeing a different type of dog, and incorporating the new type into our dog schema. unit 3 ACTION POTENTIAL: a neural impulse, or brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. This impulse is stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals from neighboring neurons. unit 2 AXON: The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neutrons or to muscles or glands. Some axons can be very small, while other can be very long, projecting several feet through the body. unit 2 ADOLESCENCE: The transition period period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. Many changes take place during this time; some bodily changes include introduction of primary and secondary sex characteristics and menarche for women. unit 3 ADRENAL GLANDS: a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress. They secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which speed up and slow down the body. unit 2 BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY: the scientific study of observable behavior and its explanation by principles of learning. Behavioral psycholigyts might determine which external stimuli trigger angry or aggressive acts. unit 1 BINOCULAR CUES: depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes. An example is retinal disparity. unit 4 BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY: branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behavior. Also called behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologysts, or biopsychologists. They might study brain circuits that cause us to be 'red in the face' or how heredity and experience influnce different individuals in temperment. unit 1 BROCA'S AREA: part of the brain that controls language expression. An area, usually in the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movement involved in speech. If there is damage to this part of the brain then a person would struggle to speak words while still being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech. unit 2 BRAINSTEM: the oldest and central core of the brain , beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; it is responsible for automatic survival functions. If a cat's brainstem is cut off, it can still breathe and live, but won't be able to purposefuly run or climb to get food. unit 2 BARBITUATES: drugs that depress the activity in the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement. Some examples include Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal unit 5 C CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is the information higway connecting the Peripheral nervous system to the brain. unit 2 CEREBELLUM: The little brain located at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory inout and coordinating movement output and balance. It enables one type of nonverbal learning and memory; It also allows us to judge time, modulate our emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures. unit 2 CIRCADIAN RYHTHM: The biological clock;
regular body rhythms (ed. temperature and
wakefullness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle unit 5 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: the scientific study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language). A cognitive psychologist may study our interpretation of a situation that affeects our anger and how our anger affects thinking processes. unit 6 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: A type of learning in which one learns to link 2 or more stimuli and anticipate events. Ivan PAvlov discovered this when working with dogs and digestion, and noticed that they salivated beofre the food even came. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE: in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (approx. 6-11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations needed that enable them to think logically about concrete events. We learned in our developmental project taht our subjects were not yet in this stage because they displayed some egocentrism. unit 3 D DELTA WAVES: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep. They occur in stage 4 nREM sleep. unit 5 DEPRESSANTS: drugs (such as alcohol, barbituates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. They can disrupt memory, reduce self-awareness, and have an effect on expectant mothers unit 5 DENDRITE: the bushy branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.. A way to remember what the dendrite does compared to the rest of the cell is the saying, "Axons speak. Dendrites listen." unit 2 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span of an individual. It is is most famously led by Jean Piaget. unit 3 E EGOCENTRISIM: in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty with taking another's point of view. A test for egocentrism is the '3 mountains' test. unit 3 EEG: An amplified recording of the waves of electrical acitivity that sweeps across the brain's surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. It is often used in sleep studies to measure brain activity during sleep. unit 5 EFFORTFUL PROCESSING: encoding that requires attention and concious effort. A technique for effortful processing, such as studying, is rehearsal. unit 6 ECHOIC MEMORY: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention elsewhere , sounds and words can be recalled within 3-4 seconds. unit 6 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: the body's 'slow' chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. It consists of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid glands and more. unit 2 EXPLICIT MEMORY: memory of facts and experiences one can conciously know and declare. An example of this is memory of facts that we learn in school and using them for a test.unit 6 F FLUID INTELLIGENCE: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease in late adulthood unit. On the other hand, crystallized intelligence increases as we age. Unit 3 FRONTAL LOBES: portion of the cerebral cortex just behind the forehead that is involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements. It contains the motor cortex, crucial to movement. unit 2 FUNCTIONALISM: school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish. William James was a functionalist. unit 1 FREQUENCY: the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time. A higher frequency has a high pitch, while a low frequency has a low pitch. unit 4 FIGURE GROUND: the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground). Figure and ground are interchangeable in reversible figures such as in M. C. Escher's mosiaics unit 4 fMRI: a functional MRI is a technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function. unit 2 G GENDER ROLE: a set of expected behaviors for males and females. For example, girls are expected by society to like dolls and be nice and sweet, whereas 'boys will be boys' when they are rough and rowdy. unit 3 GLIAL CELLS: cells in the nervous system that support , nourish, and protect, neurons. There are billions of neurons; You might think that's a lot, but there are nine times as many glial cells to support them. unit 2 GENES: biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein unit. They play an important role in the nature nurture debates, because scientists question whether genes make up a larger part of our learning and processes. unit 2 H HALLUCINOGENS: psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs such as LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. examples of hallucinogens include marijuana and LSD. unit 5 HIPPOCAMPUS: a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage. Damage to the hippocampus can disrupt types of memory, and can cause such things as amnesia, depending where it was affected. unit 2 HYPOTHALAMUS: a neural structure lying below the thalamus that directs several maintenence activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) and helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked with emotion and reward. It helps monitor blood chemistry and takes orders from other parts of the brain. unit 2 HYPNOSIS: a social interaction in which 1 person (hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Many believe there are beneficial side effects of hypnosis, such as relieving stress and possible stress-related issues.unit 5 HABITUATION: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity to repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. For example, if an infant is in front of a tv, watching it, you could turn off the tv , and they wouldn't look away for a little while.unit 3 HARLOW'S MONKEYS:Psychologist Harry Harlow worked with monkeys to see if the babies preferred a fake wire mother with nutrients but no fur, or a fake mother who didn't have food but had a fuzzy cloth covering. Harlow found that the monkeys spent the most time with the mother with the blanket covering , because they become attached to parents that are soft, warm, and feel safe; Humans attach to parents who are warm and soft as well. unit 3? I IMPLICIT MEMORY: retention independent of conscious recollection(also called procedural memory). An example of this is learning how to ride a bike; when we get back on later, the method of riding a bike comes naturally to us. unit 6 INSOMNIA: recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. This can sometimes be prevented by by avoiding certain habits, such as having a meal right before bedtime. unit 5 IRIS: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening. The iris dilates or restricts in response to light intensity or even inner emotions. unit 4 IVAN PAVLOV: was a psychologist who developed classical conditioning from an experiment with dogs, originally studying digestion. He found that the dogs salivated before they were given their food. He was eventually able to get the dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell, signaling for food. unit 7 INDIVIDUALISM: giving priority to one's goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than grouped identification. Individualists from Western cultures sometimes see traditional cultures, such as Japanese, as confining.pg 516 unit 3 J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z NOW WE KNOW OUR ABC'S SO WE'LL PASS OUR AP TEST
WITH EASE! LONG-TERM MEMORY: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. A fact can be encoded into memory by techniques such as rehearsal. unit 6 LIMBIC SYSTEM: doughnut shaped neural system which includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, and is located below the cerebral hemispheres; it is associated with emotion and drive. This neural system sits between the brain's older parts and its cerebral hemispheres. unit 2 LENS: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina. The lens focuses incoming light rays by changing its curvature in a process called accommodation. unit 4 LONG-TERM POTENTIATION: an increase in the synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. Some evidence that long term potentiation is a physical basis for memory is that drugs that block LTP interfere with learning, which needs memory. unit 6 MEDULLA: Located at the base of the brainstem, just below the pons. It controls the heart and breathing. Along with the brainstem and pons, it makes up an extension of the spinal cord. unit 2 MONOCULAR CUES: depth cues that are available to either eye alone. An example of a monocular cue is proximity. unit 4 MYELIN SHEATH: a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next. The thicker the myelin, the faster the impulse. unit 2 MATURATION: Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. Maturation sets the basic course of development; experience adjusts it. unit 3 MANIFEST CONTENT: according to Freud, the remembered storyline of a dream (as distinct from its latent or hidden content). It incorporates the previous days' nonsexual experiences and occupations. Sensory stimuli in our environment may also intrude upon the storyline of our dreams. unit 5 MEDIAN: the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. An example of a median can be seen with with test scores; if a student recieves a 71, 78, 83, 85, 87, 91, and 96, the median test score is 85. unit 1 NATURAL SELECTION: the principle , among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.Charles Darwin argued that natural selection shaped behavior as well as body. unit 1 NREM SLEEP: non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep. It is characterized by sleep without dreams. It is characterized by sleep spindles in stage2 sleep and eventually in stage 4, delta waves. unit 5 NEUROTRANSMITTERS: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the recieving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impluse. unit 2 NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION: Observing and recording behavior in naturaly occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. An example of this kind of study is taping and analyzing parent-child interactions in different cultures. Unit 1 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. Example: human intelligence can be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. Unit 1 OCCIPITAL LOBES: portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that recieve information from visual fields. It contains the the visual association area and cortex. unit 2 OBJECT PERMANENCE: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved. It is lost in the preoperational stage of development. unit 3 OPIATES: Opium and its derivatives; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. An example of opium is heroin. unit 5 OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY: The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others vice versa. unit 4 OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING: learning as observed by others. Also called social learning. It was made famous by Bandura's Bobo Doll experiment. unit 7 PSYCHOLOGY: the science of behavior and mental processes. It is made up of many subfields and has come a long way since its beginnings; however, one of the biggest continuing arguements is the controversy over nature versus nurture. unit 1 PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY: branch of psychology that studies the unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. Someone working from the psychodynamic perspective might view an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility unit 1 PLASCTICITY: the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience unit 2 PERCEPTION: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. the way we perceive the world however, is not always the reality of the world. unit 4 PHI PHENOMENON: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession. An example is an arrow sign with flashing lights that make it seem like the lights are pointing. unit 4 POPULATION: all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. A representative or random sample can then be taken from this population. An example of population is surveying all the students from one school, or choosing a representative or random sampling of the students at the school. unit 1 RETICULAR FORMATION: a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal. It is a finger shaped network of neurons that extends from the spinal cord to the thalamus, inside the brainstem. unit 2 REM SLEEP: rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because muscles are relaxed )except for minor twitches while the rest of the body is still active. unit 5 REFLEX: a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response. An example of this is a baby's rooting reflex, which is when you touch a baby's cheek and it moves its mouth toward you in search of a nipple to receive nutrients from. . unit 3 REHEARSAL: the conscious repetition for information, either to maintain it for consciousness or to encode it for storage. RETRIEVAL: the process of getting memory out of memory storage. Just because you aren't able to remember something doesn't mean it is not in your memory; the problem may lie in locating it for retrieval. unit 5 RODS: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray. necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond. They are also able to detect movement. The rods then send visual information to the occipital lobes via the optic nerve. unit 4 is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... i s f o r is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... is for... SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY: a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid backgroud stimulus (noise) . Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness. pg 121 unit 4 SIGMEUND FREUD: Freud was an Austrian physician who emphasized emotional responses to childhood childhood experiences and believed unconscious thought process affected behavior. He used the first therapy technique called psychoanalysis and also used dream analysis to help people overcome their problems.unit 1 SUBLIMINAL: Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness. An example is backmasking. However, contrary to popular belief, it is proven that these messages don't actually influence us.unit 4 SENSORY MEMORY: The immediate , very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. It is the initial contact for stimuli. Because of sensory memory, we can have a larger field of vision by remembering images the eye has already focused on. unit 6 SPLIT BRAIN: A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's 2 hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus collosum) connecting them. A person with this procedure done can say a word shown in their right visual field and can draw or point to a word they saw in their left visual field, but cannot do vice versa. pg 84 unit 2 TEMPORAL LOBES: portion of the cerebral cortex lying slightly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear. It contains the auditory association area and cortex. unit 2 TERATOGENS: agents such as chemicals or viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Some examples of teratogens include nicotine, alcohol, radiation, and AIDS. pg 413 unit 3 THALAMUS: the brain's sensory switchboard located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. A good way to remember the function is to remember: Tommy Thalamus is the fastest guy in the relay race" since the thalamus is the brains relay station for sensory information. pg 70 unit 2 TOP-DOWN PROCESSING: information processing guided by higher level processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations. For example, if I felt a bug on my arm, I would scream and flick it off, because of my (terrible) past experiences with bugs; I used top-down processing in this situation. unit 4 THRESHOLD: The level of stimulation needed to stimulate a neural impulse. If excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed this minimum intensity, the combined signals trigger an action potential. unit 2 UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE: In classical conditioning, the learned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth unit 7 UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS: In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally and automatically) triggers a response. For example, a loud noise (stimulus) will automatically trigger an infant to get upset or start crying. pg 219 unit 7 UNCONDCIOUS: according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing that we are unaware. pg 480 unit 5 VISUAL CLIFF: a laboratory device for testing depth perception in young infants and animals. It was found in Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's experiment that even when coaxed infants are reluctant to venture of the glass of 'the cliff.'pg. 153 unit 3 WERNICKE'S AREA: controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe. Damage to this part of the brain means that a person could speak only meaningless words, because the damage disrupts understanding. unit 2 WITHDRAWAL: the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug. The user may feel physical pains and intense cravings, which may indicate physical dependence. There can also be psychological dependence, such as to relieve negative emotions. (pg 197)unit 5 WEBER'S LAW: the principle that, to be perceived different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a constant amount). The exact proportion varies depending on the stimulus. unit 4 WILHELM WUNDT: Wilhelm Wundt was a psychologist who established the 1st psychology laboratory at a university in Germany. He also began psychology's 'first experiment' by having a person hit a key when a ball hit a platform. This helped him measure mind's simplest process.
Unit 1 WORKING MEMORY: a newer understanding of a short-term memory that focuses on the consciousness , active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory (pg 258) unit 6 X CHROMOSOME: the sex chromosome found in both males and females. Females have two X chromosomes, males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child unit 3 Y CHROMOSOME: the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. Only males have this chromosome. unit 3 YOUNG-HEMHOLTZ TRICHROMATIC THEORY: The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, on to green, one to blue-which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color. For example, there are no receptors especially sensitive to yellow. Yet when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones are stimulated, we see yellow. unit 4 ZYGOTE: The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. It is the result of the fusion of two haploid gametes. unit 3 DEPENDENT VARIABLE: The dependent variable is what is being measured in an experiment. It may change in response to manipulations of an independent variable. For example, in an experiment of measuring test scores of children from different schools, the test scores are the dependent variable. Unit 1 DOUBLE-BLIND PROCEDURE: an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have recieved the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug studies. Double-blind studies are often used in psychology research to protect against the effects of demand characteristics. Drug studies often use double-blind procedures, because of the use of drug placebos. unit 1 GESTALT: an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. For example, if we look at a Necker cube, we see a whole cube, even though one doesn't exist 4 GROUPING: The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups. Examples of these include proximity, similarity, connectedness, closure, and continuity, as seen in this painting. unit 4 GENERALIZATION: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. An example of this is the Baby Albert experiment; the baby was at first afraid of the white rat, but soon became afraid of anything white and furry, such as a dog or a fur coat. unit 7 INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces. It is a subfiled of psycholgy in applied research, or scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. unit 1 JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE: The just-noticeable difference is the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected half the time. unit 4 JOHN B. WATSON: Watson was a behvioralist, and thereofre believed that psychology is an objective science and studied behavior without mental processes. He is most famously known for his 'Baby Albert' experiment, in which he used classical conditioning to instill a fear of white furry things into an infant. Unit 7 CARL JUNG: Carl Jung was a Swiss psychotherapist and psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. Unit 1 JEAN PIAGET: Piaget was a Swiss biologist who carefully observed and questioned children. He formed a therory about stages of development, which include the sensorimoter period, pre-operational stage, and concrete operational stage.Unit 3 KINESTHESIS: the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. It is the sense of body motion. unit 4 PHANTOM LIMB SYNDROME: When a person, such as an amputee, perceives a limb that is actually not there. This occurs when brain misinterprets spontaneous central nervous system activity that occurs in the absence of normal sensory input. unit 4 LONGITUDINAL STUDY: research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period. An example of this is a study of babies in different cultures and their progress in education as they grow up and eventually go out into the world. unit 1 NARCOLEPSY: a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. It comes from the words 'narco'-numbness and 'lepsy'- seizure. unit 5 NATURE-NURTURE DEBATE: the longstanding controversy over the relative contribution that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. This arguement can be traced back to ancient times; Plato argued that certain ideas are inborn while Aristotle countered that everything comes from the environment. ***picture of aristotle and plato unit 3 X- AXIS: the horizontal axis in a plane coordinate system. It is also known as the independent variable. unit 1 ZOLLNER ILLUSION: A classic optical illusion developed by Johann Zollner In this figure the black lines seem to be unparallel, but in reality they are parallel. The shorter lines are on an angle to the longer lines. This angle helps to create the impression that one end of the longer lines is nearer to the viewer than the other end. unit 4 PHILIP ZIMBARDO-SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGIST: He is a modern psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He hosts our class' favorite TV show, Discovering Psychology. unit 1 WAVELENGTH: The distance between successive crests of a wave, such as in points in a sound wave. Longer wavelengths mean lower frequencies, while shorter wavelengths mean higher frequencies. unit 4 SELECTIVE ATTENTION: When a person purposely focuses their conscious awareness onto a specific stimulus. For example, if you are in a crowded, noisy room, you can focus your attention on just what talking and listening to the person next to you. unit 4 THEORY: an explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Scientists test theories using the scientific method, and the resulting data may support or not support a theory. This helps prove if a theory is good or if it needs to be revised or rejected. Unit 1 CONFOUNDING VARIABLE: A factor other than independent variable that may produce an effect on experiment. Random assignment controls for possible confounding variable, which can ruin data. unit 1 VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. An example of a variable interval schedule is waiting in class for a graded paper. unit 7 VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. An example of this are slot machines in a casino; you never know when you pull the lever if you're going to win or not. This is the most successful reinforcement schedule. unit 7 JUDGEMENTAL OVERCONFIDENCE: Hindsight makes people feel overconfident because problem may seem obvious. Judgemental overconfidence comes with hindishgt bias, or the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one could have foreseen it. unit 1 JEROME KAGEN: American developmental psychologist who worked with sense of self. He believed that certain behaviors in infancy were predictive of certain behaviors in adolescence. unit 3 KONRAD LORENZ: zoologist who studied geese/imprinting. He worked out how geese attach to their mothers and how they will attach to creatures. unit 3 VOLLEY PRINCIPLE: Explains that neural cells can alternate firing. By firing in rapid succession, they can achieve a combined frequency. This is helpful because one neuron cannot fire faster than 1000 times per second. Unit 4 VESTIBULAR SENSE: sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. It is located in the inner ear and registers the orientation of the head. unit 4 K-COMPLEXES: It is an EEG waveform that occurs during stage 2 nREM sleep. It lasts about half a second and aids in sleep memory consolidation. It occurs right before a sleep spindle. unit 5. IMMANUEL KANT: German philosopher maintained that knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences. This is part of the nature-nurture debate; John Locke opposed this view by arguing that through our experiences we also learn to perceive the world. Unit 4 Universal Grammar: It is a theory developed by Chomsky that proposes that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. It suggests that linguistic ability is innate, therefore siding with the nature side in the constant nature-nurture debate. Unit 6 Unconscious Processing: A mental process one is not directly aware of. Some examples of this include regulating heartbeat, body temperature, and breathing. unit 6 Umami: A fifth basic taste that is associated with meats. It comes from a Japanese word for 'pleasant savory taste.' unit 4 Thomas Young: He was an English scientist from 1773 to 1829 who contributed to the fields of light, vision, language, and physiology. He helped create the young-hemholtz trichromatic theory. Y Axis: the vertical axis in a plane coordinate system. It is also known as the dependent variable. unit 1 Andrea Yates: is a famous psychological subject who killed her 5 children by drowning them in a bathtub in her house . The jury had a hard time determining if she was insane, or if she could discern the difference between right and wrong. JOHN LOCKE: He was a British philosopher who lived from 1632 to 1704. He argued that mind at birth is blank, or tabula rasa. He helped form the early idea of Empiricism, which is the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science therfore should rely on observation and experimentation. Unit 1 WILLIAM JAMES: He wrote the first psychology textbook and taught psychology at Harvard, and also taught Mary Calkins, who became the first female president of the APA. He found it was better to consider evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings, and was a functionalist, which is one that focuses on how our mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable us to survive and adapt. Unit 1 QUASI EXPERIMENT: It is an observational study in which the subjects to be observed are not randomly assigned in different groups. In this type of experiment, there is no exact control group. unit 1 QUESTIONNAIRE:A set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purposes of a survey or statistical study. unit 1 QUOTA SAMPLING: A sampling method of gathering representative data from a group. As opposed to random sampling, quota sampling requires that representative individuals are chosen out of a specific subgroup. For example, a researcher might ask for a sample of 100 males. unit 1 Q is for KOHLBERG'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT: Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development constitute an adaptation of a psychological theory originally conceived by Jean Piaget. he theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor.unit 3 XRAY- CT SCAN: It is a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into composite representation of a slice through the body. It can examine the brain to reveal brain damage. unit 2
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