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11R: Cause of the US Civil War
Transcript of 11R: Cause of the US Civil War
1. Maine enters as free state.
2. Missouri enters as slave state
3. 36 30' All territory North of line =
Free - except Missouri
Terms of Treaty
Compromise of 1850
California enters Union as FREE state
Stricter Fugitive Slave Law enacted
Slave trade banned in Washington D.C.
Populary sovereignty (vote by people) used in Mexican Cession Territory
Terms of Treaty
Fugitive Slave Act
Returned lost property
Forced citizens to support slavery
Fine of $1000 and Jail if caught harboring slave.
Freed slaves could be kidnapped
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Added fuel to abolitionist movement
Made slavery a Moral issue
Seen as Northern Propaganda
Ms. Stowe never visited the South or met a slave.
President Zachary Taylor
Rise of the
Formed from ashes of Whig Party
Formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Declared slavery was immoral and were determined to end the institution.
Repealed Missouri Compromise
formed Kansas & Nebraska Territories
Popular Sovereignty applied = People decide if territory is slave or free.
What did the act do?
How could Kansas become a state?
Write a state constitution.
Northerners move to Kansas to make it a free state
Missourian move to Kansas to make it a slave state.
How did this lead to violence in 1856?
Settlers from Missouri & other southern states illegally voted in elections.
"Free soilers" - name given to the anti-slavery settlers - were given funds to settle in Kansas.
May 21, 1856
"Border Ruffians" or Pro slavery looters ransacked homes, burning down several and destroyed two newspaper offices in Lawrence, KA
May 24-25, 1856
John Brown, an anti-slavery supporter, raided the
homes of 5 proslavers, dragged them from their beds and killed them with swords.
Representative Preston Brooks vs.
Senator Charles Sumner (MA)
May 22, 1856
Senator Charles Sumner gives a speech
bitterly attacking the south for forcing slavery on Kansas.
2 days later, his nephew Representative Preston Brooks beats him with a cane - defending the south.
Election of James Buchanan
Pledges to stop the "agitation of the slavery issue in the North.
California requests entry
as a free state.
Dred Scott Decision
Scott v. Sanford
Scott an enslaved man from MO filed suit against his owner.
He and his wife Harriet were free because they once lived in free territory
Supreme Court Ruled 7 to 2 against Scott
Missouri Compromise unconsititutional
Slaveres were propery of their owners (not Citizens)
Due process (5th Amendment) states that Congress can not deny citizens of their property.
Terrible blow to abolition
Congress has no power to ban slavery anywhere.
Cheered the results
Confirmed their beliefs that slavery was not a moral issue
John Brown's Raid
Election of Abraham Lincoln
Firing on Fort Sumter
Secession of the South
Brown unsuccessfully attempts to start a slave uprising by raiding the Federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
Under the command of Robert E. Lee, Federal troups kill half his men.
After two of his sons are killed and he is wounded, Brown is arrested and sentenced to hang for treason.
North - Martyr
South - Tool of the Abolitionists
Was he a hero or an insane fanatic?
Lincoln won the electoral vote, but not the popular vote.
Democratic Party Splits
Favored deciding issue of slavery by popular soverignty
Favored expanding slavery into territories
1. Lincoln's Election
2. Lincoln won with out a single
electoral vote from the South.
3. Southerns felt that they no
longer had a voice in their own
"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new — North as well as South."
During the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Lincoln lost the Senatorial election, but gained a huge following. Looking back on his "House Divided" speech, for the South, his election as President could mean the end of their way of life.
April 12-13, 1861
Constitution gives Congress power over territories
Previous acts justify banning of slavery in territories.
Southern Views:Constitutional equity only applies to whites.Congress has no authority to prevent extension of slavery into territories.Congress has constitutional duty to protect slavery
The Causes of the Civil War
opposed slavery in all forms.
The Civil War Begins
to enter the Union
as a slave state.
What was the motivation behind
Nebraska becoming a state?
Stephen Douglas (IL) wanted to ensure Northern Transcontinental RR route that would benefit his constituents.
Southern democrats opposed as Nebraska would enter as free state.
Douglas counters by offering to split territory and presents idea of popular sovereignty.