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SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT :
Transcript of SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT :
Form 1 – 2012
2016 - UPSR - based on 60:40 ratio
2014 – PMR --- PT3
School-based assessment refers to ‘continuous assessment’, ‘assessment of learning’ and ‘formative assessment’ in its many forms around the world. (Rajput, Tewari & Kumar, 2005; Black & William, 2003)
Teachers teach; learners learn, and what occurs as part of those processes is evaluated (Black & William, 2003; Webb & Jones, 2009).
Teachers play a vital role
Very little is known about the concerns of the teachers
Although we tend to associate `innovation' with `improvement', most educational innovations have not resulted in long-term, significant changes in schools (McCulloch, 1998; Stromquist & Basile, 1999).
There are many reasons why an educational innovation failed to produce the intended changes in schools, but one important reason, is that teachers' concerns about the advocated innovation were not monitored and dealt with throughout the process of educational change. (Cheung, 2001)
LITERATURE REVIEW & FINDINGS
To examine the school's support as well as teachers' readiness, knowledge, skills and challenges in the implementation of school-based assessment.
To sidestep any possible cause of failure in our education system.
SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENT :
Fadhilah Bukil (811367)
Sufina Halim (811673)
Zulamani Mohd. Bahar (811730)
Sivabalaraj s/o Govindasamy (811668)
Kesavan s/o Komarasamy (811412)
Is there a difference in school’s support based on the teachers’ gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA?
Is there a difference in teachers’ readiness based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA?
Is there a difference in teachers’ knowledge based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA?
Is there a difference in teachers’ readiness in term of skills based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA?
Is there a difference in teachers’ challenges based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA?
1. There is no difference in school’s support based on the teachers’ gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
2. There is no difference in teachers’ readiness based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
3. There is no difference in teachers’ knowledge based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
4. There is no difference in teachers’ readiness in term of skills based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
5. There is no difference in teachers’ challenges based on their gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
Bailey (2000) points out, the context and process of mandated change often marginalises teachers and failing to deal with the concerns of marginalised teachers is a key cause of repeated failure of educational change.
Teachers had difficulties in implementing the school-based assessment (Hamzah & Sinnasamy, 2009).
Hamzah and Sinnasamy (2009) quoted Weir (1994) that teachers have negative feelings towards school-based assessment due to two common reasons; it was imposed on them and time constraint.
TEACHERS' READINESS IN TERM OF SKILLS
TEACHERS' TEACHING EXPERIENCE
CHALLENGES FACED BT THE TEACHERS IN SBA
Subjects taught (English, Malay Language, Mathematics & Science)
Othman et all. (2013) concluded that schools are ready to support SBA implementation in the form of providing facilities needed for the smooth-running of the implementation. Without enough facilities, SBA implementation in Primary School Standard Curriculum will face difficulties.
the keys to improving reliability and meeting the other challenges in a summative SBA are probably by providing teachers with sufficient, appropriate advice in booklets, videos and training meetings and assessor networks and by giving sufficient time and attention to moderation procedures. (Raffan,2001)
Despites realising the importance of school’s support to the teachers in the implementation of SBA, to date, there is no study yet on how much support has been given by the school to the teachers in Malaysia in conducting SBA as well as the effectiveness of the support given.
Female English Language teachers seemed to have more positive attitudes towards teaching than their male counterparts (Sharbain and Kok Eng Tan, 2013)
Female teachers are more committed to the teaching profession than the male teachers. (Odunaike K. O et. al.,2013)
According to Ladd (2013), educational researchers have been able to pin down how much teacher experience matters.
Experienced teachers are on average more effective in raising student achievement than their less experienced counterparts.
Teachers do better as they gain experience.
Experienced teachers also strengthen education in other ways beyond improving test scores.
Bahasa Melayu teachers understood the syllabus better and their teaching are more effective. They are closer with the students and understand the demand of their students more than other teachers (Noor, 2013).
English Language teachers claim that they need training on time management when it comes to implementing school-based assessment. (Faizah, 2011)
The issue of efficient record keeping systems is critical, in that it may help to make or break the system. (e.g. Recording and reporting on student’s progress)
Portal (2003) explains that the experience of profiling in the UK was frequently that teachers ended up keeping large collections of pupils’ work without having the opportunity or in some cases the expertise to make any clear use of it.
Hamzah's and Sinnasamy's (2009) found that teachers had difficulties in implementing the school-based assessment.
SBA system is still new and needs time to be adapted. The challenges of SBA were not only affected Bahasa Melayu teachers but all teachers around Malaysia (Ministry of Education,2013).
There is evidence that the ESL teachers' knowledge and skills in implementing school-based assessment is still quite poor despite the guidelines and objectives provided by the Ministry. (Faizah,2011)
Science teacher proficiency in performing the School-based assessment of the PMR Science (PEKA) and according to established procedures, the expected level is moderately high (Ahmad and Saliza, 2008).
SUBJECT TAUGHT BY THE TEACHERS
Den Brok et al. (2004) found Physics teachers to be perceived as less cooperative and slightly less dominant than EFL teachers. Interpersonal behaviour seemed to have a larger effect on pleasure and confidence for Physics teachers, while for EFL teachers it had a larger effect on achievement scores and perceived relevance of the subject.
Wubbels and Levy (1993) found Mathematics teachers to be the most dominant of all subject teachers, together with foreign language teachers, while social science teachers were perceived as least dominant. These patterns were found both in students’ perceptions as well as in teachers’ self-perceptions.
TEACHERS' READINESS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SBA
One of the assumptions underlying centrally directed educational reforms is that teachers, where necessary, will be both willing and able to adapt their teaching in appropriate directions. Yet there is considerable evidence to suggest that is not so. Teachers mediate the external pressure upon them through the ‘filter’ of their own professionalism. Indeed, the SBA reform was understood in very different ways (Yung, 1995).
English Language teachers were concerned about SBA and were eager to learn more about it (Faizah,2011).
Bahasa Melayu teachers are willing to implement SBA in school but they have a few concerns to be put forwards like time constraint (Sidek et.al 2012).
Science teachers have a willingness in implementing school-based assessment of student performance (Sidek et.al. 2010)
The findings of this study will foresee possible hitch and flaws that might occur in the implementation of the newly-introduced school-based assessment and consequently provide feedback on possible revision and modification of the innovation.
More computers needed - vital
Ready to implement - but do not welcome workload
Aware of the concept as a whole, but need more detail information on types of assessment
Able to plan well, but not confident to assess
Slow online system, but good cooperation from students
There is no difference in school's support based on teachers' gender and the subject they taught in the implementation of SBA.
There is a difference in teachers' readiness based on the teachers’ gender in the implementation of SBA. The mean of
readiness is higher than
There is no difference in teachers' readiness based on the subject taught in the implementation of SBA
There is no difference in teachers' knowledge based on the teachers’ gender and subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
There is no difference in teachers' readiness in term of skills based on the teachers’ gender in the implementation of SBA.
There is a difference in teachers' readiness in term of skills based on the subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
have a higher mean of skills than
, while other subject teachers do not show any significant difference.
There is a difference in term of challenges based on the teachers’ gender in the implementation of SBA.
' mean of challenges is
than the mean of challenges of the
There is no difference in term of challenges based on the subject taught in the implementation of SBA.
An 89 items questionnaire - to measure the relative intensities of teachers’ readiness, knowledge and challenges in the implementation of SBA.
Population and Sample:
196 in-service trained teachers teaching Form 1 to Form 3 in 13 schools in the state of Kedah.
one year of SBA teaching experience in either Malay Language, English Language, Mathematics or Science.
Simple random sampling
The challenges voiced by these teachers are related to:
tardiness of the data base
teacher misunderstanding of method in evaluation due to differences in online and manual version,
extra workload of the teachers (NUTP, 2013).
Bahasa Melayu teachers gave reason like they have to work longer hours in order to monitor the attitudes and differences in individuality either in or outside the classroom (Sidek et.al 2012).
English Language teachers claimed that they did not have enough time and that they spent time on non-academic matters related to school-based assessment. They also indicated a need for exposure on how to conduct the assessment more efficiently (Faizah,2011).
Problems and constraints faced by science teachers are problems in terms of
too many skills to be assessed
materials and apparatus are not enough
the burden of other tasks
the number of students
(Ahmad and Saliza’s 2008)