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Cells 2: Matter & Energy Processing.

2 of 5 of cell biology unit
by

Sarah Blechacz

on 21 August 2014

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Transcript of Cells 2: Matter & Energy Processing.

Central vacuoles:
in many mature plant cells
(storage)
stockpiling proteins, inorganic ions
depositing metabolic byproducts
storing pigments, defensive compounds
A Tour of The Cell (Part 2)
A Reminder:
The Life of the Cell
All cells must do the following things to stay alive:
Process matter: Molecules need to be acquired, synthesized and digested
Process energy
: In order to process matter, energy must be provided. This energy usually comes from one of two places (where?)
Process information: The instructions that enable the cell to process matter and energy must be interpreted by the cellular system. Signals from the environment must also be interpreted.

Many cells will also do the following :
Reproduce: The information that runs the cell must be passed on to new generations of cells.
Communicate: Cells respond to/direct other cells.
Cells have systems to do all of these things!
Big Questions:
What is the relationship between matter and energy?

Why does life require matter?

Why does life require energy?

How do the interactions of cellular components allow the cell to process matter and energy?
Make Sure You Can:
Mitochondria & Chloroplast Similarities:
Energy Processing
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Lysosomes
Energy Processing & Evolution
2 major sources:

Food
The Sun*
Vacuoles
There are all sorts of specialized digestive sacs in cells.
Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria

The more active the cell, the more mitochondria
Energy: The ability to do work. Stored in chemical bonds.

Meaning: The ability to move matter around.
Why do cells need Energy?
Where do cells get energy from?
Things that require matter movement:
taking in nutrients (food, O2)
breaking molecules down
building molecules
making ATP
removing waste
reproduction
regulation
all life processes
Energy process: Respiration

From food (glucose) to ATP
*There are a few exceptions
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Cells convert incoming energy to forms that they can use using two major organelles:
ATP = contains easily broken bonds (quick energy usage)
Energy is Processed NOT "Made"
...Matter is, too!
Energy process: Photosynthesis

From sunlight to Carbohydrates
CO2 & H2O
O2 & Sugar
Sunlight
Heat
Structure:
A sac full of digestive ("hydrolytic") enzymes
Function:
Digestion of large molecules
Digestion of damaged cell parts
Apoptosis ("programmed cell death")
Cytosol pH is 7. Lysosomal enzymes work best at pH 5 (why?)
Lysosomal diseases:
often fatal.
digestive enzyme don't work
Lysosomal "Storage" diseases:
lysosome picks up molecules but can’t digest them.
lysosomes fill up, grow larger & larger until disrupts cell & organ function
more than 40 known diseases
Tay-Sachs disease:
a recessive genetic disease.
undigested fat builds up in brain cells
mental retardation and death at an early age (by 4)
Other "-somes"
Examples:
Peroxisomes
(breakdown fatty acids to sugars)
Protosomes
("shredders")
Structure:
An membranous sac full of "storage" materials.
Functions:
Contractile vacuoles: in freshwater protists, pump excess H2O out of cell.
Food vacuoles: Contain undigested food. Fuse with lysosomes.
Can you spot the difference?
Plant-like cell
Animal-like cell
Structure:
Outer membrane
(*what does this suggest about origins of mitochondria?)
Highly folded

inner membrane

(*why?)
Cristae
: folds of the inner membrane
Matrix
: Fluid filled inner cavity.

Contains

DNA
,

free ribosomes

& enzymes
Function:
Aerobic cellular respiration
Digestion ("catabolism") of macromolecules to produce ATP, CO2 and H2O
Mitochondria are stained red:
Thank your mitochondria!
Mitochondria reproduce independently of the cell
Structure:
Outer Membrane
Inner Membrane
Stroma: liquid inside inner membrane. Contains DNA and Ribosomes & enzymes. Where sugar is made.
Thylakoids: Membranous sacs inside inner membrane. Where ATP is made. Stacked into "Grana"
Major Energy/Matter Processors:
Function:
Photosynthesis
Building ("anabolism") of sugar from ATP, CO2 & light. Produces O2 as waste
Only plant-like cells have chloroplasts!
Chloroplasts are just one of a group of plant organelles called "plastids" All plastids are the products of endosymbiosis (DNA sequence analysis puts plastid ancestors near modern cyanobacteria)
Chloroplasts make plants green (why?)
both transform energy
both generate ATP
both have double membranes
both are "semi-autonomous" organelles (not part of endomembrane system)
both move, change shape, divide on their own
both have small internal ribosomes, circular DNA & make their own protein enzymes
How can we explain these facts?
Endosymbiosis
But wait, there's more!
give flowers and fruit their colors
synthesize and store starch
stores lipids
stores protein
Similar patterns of plastid evolution & diversification are seen in algae, too.
Any Questions?
Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP)
See if you can guess which of these 2 white blood cells has gone apoptopic.

Hint: an apoptopic cell breaks apart into vesicles called "blebs". The blebs are absorbed by neighboring cells.
Apoptosis is responsible for the space between your fingers, your nostrils, your eyelids, and generally every hole in your body (that's supposed to be there).
Explain why cells need to process matter and energy and how they do it.

Explain the relationship between chloroplasts and mitochondria.

Explain the relationship between structure and function in all organelles mentioned in this presentation.

Explain how the organelles in this presentation provide for essential life processes.

Refine your understanding of endosymbiosis in light of the information discussed in this presentation.
And now for your viewing pleasure...
another great overview!
(wow!)
plant cell
animal cell
(membrane)
Full transcript