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Unit 1: 1492-1607

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Jenny Holloway

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of Unit 1: 1492-1607

Unit 1: 1492-1607
Early America and European Colonialism
Largest civilizations in Mesoamerica (Aztec, Maya)
Started farming maize (approx. 5,000 BC)
Paves the way for permanent settlements
Division of labor
Specialization of jobs
Maize moves North
Sustains civilizations throughout America
Leads to complex irrigation systems in SW and Mississippian societies
Great Plains and Great Basin
Civilizations in the Americas
Semi-permanent dwellings
Relied on H&G of ocean species
Coastal houses, canoes, totems
Farming and H&G
Terraced housing
Surrounded by nomadic tribes
Southwest Tribes
Natchez; city of Cahokia
City of 30,000
Political hierarchy
Burial mounds
Farming, some H&G
Mississippian and Southern Tribes
Mostly permanent, communal settlements
Farming and H&G
Atlantic Seaboard Tribes
Tribal federations
War with neighboring tribes
Farming and H&G
Inland Northeast
Northwest Tribes
Farming and H&G
Revolutionized by intro of the horse
Buffalo hunting, tepees
Native Americans--in General
Combination of hunting/gathering and farming
Matrilineal society--more rights for women
Relied on maize cultivation
Trade with neighboring tribes
Warfare with neighboring tribes
Farming ushered in hierarchical societies
Common Asian ancestry, great diversity of experience based on region and environment
Columbian Exchange
Motivators of Exploration:
: desire to spread Christianity (Spanish and French Catholics); escape persecution after Protestant Reformation (Huguenots, Puritans)
: wanted actual gold (Spanish), find trade route to Asia (all colonizers)
: conquer lands to spread the wealth and influence of European countries (especially imperial Spain and France)
As a result of colonizing America...
Europe gained the following:
Wealth (gold, esp. silver, cash crops like tobacco)
Made Spain, France, England, Dutch incredibly powerful
Empowered merchants--they held the $ and power, changing Europe from feudalism to capitalism
New foods (potatoes, tomatoes, corn) which helped population increase
Disease (syphilis)
As a result of colonizing America...
Native Americans gained the following:
Livestock (horses, cattle, pigs)
European goods (guns, gunpowder, etc.)
Disease (smallpox)
killed 90-95% of Native Americans
The Spanish Conquistadors
Mostly men
Encomienda system enslaved natives
Native Americans not reliable as slaves--started African slave trade
Mission system designed to convert natives and strip them of culture
Highly diversified culture--mulatos, mestizos
Caste system
Saw Native Americans as inferior racially and culturally
Bartolome de Las Casas disagreed
Many natives converted
Some revolted:
Pueblo Revolt 1680
What caused the Spanish colonies to have such a diverse caste system?
The French Fur Traders
Initially looking for Northwest Passage
Mostly men, small groups of fur traders
Traded with Native Americans
Married natives, assumed Native American ways
"Frontier of inclusion"
Treaties with Native Americans
French priests sought conversion of natives
Profited greatly from fur trade (beavers)
Why were the French so much more cooperative with the Native Americans than the Spanish?
English Settlers
Unlike Spain and French, commissioned by Joint-Stock companies
Queen Elizabeth I and fierce competition with Spanish--Sea Dogs (Sir Francis Drake)
Looking for Northwest Passage--established colonies based on cash crops (Virginia) or religion (Massachusetts)
Cooperative with natives at first (Thanksgiving)
Hostile once established
Side note about the Dutch...
Also had a small colony
Future NYC
Fur trade
Taken over by English
Look at the map on page 10 of your book.
How did the environments of the following regions affect the lifestyles of those Native Americans? What are those lifestyles?
--Great Plains
Read the article on the Columbian Exchange and answer the following questions:
1) How did the Columbian Exchange facilitate European dominance of the Americas? And the world?

2) How did the Columbian Exchange alter Native American societies and ways of life?
With a partner (and using the article I handed out) answer this question:
European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generated intense social, religious, political, and economic competition and changes within European societies.

--You and a partner will be assigned ONE of the following to answer:
social, religious, political, and economic changes and/or competition
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