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# Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

a brief overview of inductive and deductive reasoning
by

## Stacey Beaton

on 26 September 2012

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#### Transcript of Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Learning to Identify Types of Logical Reasoning An Introduction to
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Merriam-Webster's Definitions of "Reason" Based primarily on observation or experience
Moves from specific observation/experience to general conclusion

Example: I kicked this ball up in the air three times. Each time, it came back down, so I guess everything I kick it up, it will come back down.
Specific Observation General Conclusion

Flaws with Inductive Reasoning:
1. Just because a number of situations are observed does not mean that a pattern exists.
2. Stereotypes are an example of flawed inductive reasoning. Inductive Reasoning Based on a general rule, law or principle
Begins with general rule, law, or principle, applies to a specific example, and draws a specific conclusion

Rule, Law or Principle + Specific Example Conclusion

Example: Newton's Law of Gravity in its simplest definition states that everything that goes up must come down. I kick a ball in the air. The conclusion is that the ball will come down.

Flaws with Deductive Reasoning:
1. If the rule, law or principle is false or faulty, then the conclusion will be faulty.
2. If the rule, law or principle is wrongly applied, then the conclusion will be faulty. Deductive Reasoning Inductive and deductive reasoning are defined by how the conclusion is determined.

Isaac Newton used inductive reasoning to determine the law of gravity. Two Types of Reasoning Now that gravity is an established law of science, the law is used as a starting point in deductive reasoning. As you watch the following film clip, take notes on your own paper. Note any possible examples of inductive or deductive reasoning used by the characters in the film clip, whether logical or not. Can you identify Inductive and Deductive Reasoning? The town's people use inductive reasoning to determine that the woman in the film clip is a witch. What are their observations?

The town's people have a way of dealing with witches. What will happen to the woman if she is a witch? Monty Python and the Holy Grail's use of Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning/Observations:

This woman has a long nose. She has a hat. She has a wart. She turned one of the town's people into a newt.

Therefore, she must be a witch. Deductive Reasoning:

General Rule: Witches are to be burned.
Specific Example: This woman is a witch.
Conclusion: This woman should be burned. Some Examples: Label the reasoning used in the following examples. Then, explain whether or not you believe the example is logical and why.

1. Rain makes streets wet. Main Street is wet. Therefore, the rain made Main Street wet.
2. I have gotten sunburned the last three times I went to the beach. Therefore, I should stop going to the beach.
3. All humans are mortal. Ryan is a human. Therefore, Ryan is mortal.
4. Two weeks ago, my instructor refused to accept a late paper. She did the same thing last week. Yesterday, she also told someone that because his paper was late, she would not accept it. I'd better get my paper in on time.
5. All state universities give need-based aid. Clemson is a state university. Therefore, Clemson gives need-based aid.
6. The Dodge Charger gets eighteen miles a gallon in the city and twenty-six miles a gallon on the highway. The Ford Crown Victoria gets twelve miles a gallon in the city and seventeen miles a gallon on the highway. Therefore, it make more sense for me to buy a Dodge Charger. Ethos - Appeals based on credibility of speaker or writer of an argument

Pathos - Appeals based on the emotion in an argument

Logos - Appeals based on the facts and reasoning of an argument Recap: Aristotle's Three Forms of Persuasion: On the back of the handout that I provided, please write one of the following:
1. A short definition of both inductive and deductive reasoning.
2. A question that you still have about inductive or deductive reasoning.
3. An area of the lesson that you would like covered in more detail next class.
4. A concern you have about the lesson.
5. The part of the lesson that you found to be the most useful. Closing Two Minute Review 7. Freedom of speech is a central principle of our form of government. For this reason, students should be allowed to wear T-shirts expressing their views.
8. My last two boyfriends cheated on me. All men are terrible.
9. Chase is not very good looking, and he dresses badly. I don't know how he can be a good architect.
10. The window at the back of the house is broken. There is a baseball on the floor. A few minutes ago, I saw two boys playing catch in a neighbor's yard. They must have thrown the ball through the window. Take a few moments to glance through King's letter and your notes. Write an example of inductive and deductive reasoning from King's letter. Read and take notes on “Three Victims of Terrorism” 293-304 WV

Look the examples of inductive and deductive reasoning (logos), ethos, and pathos. Homework for Friday
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