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Independence Movements: India, South Africa & End of Coloniz

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Emily Myers

on 29 April 2015

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Transcript of Independence Movements: India, South Africa & End of Coloniz

Independence Movements: India, South Africa & End of Colonization
Emily Myers
From Gujarat, born into Vaisya (business) Hindu caste
Went to England to study law
1893 returned and accepted job at an Indian law firm in South Africa
Experienced racism towards him and Indian indentured servants who were there
Inspired him to organize Indians to protest against racial segregation
He pioneered resistance strategies and begun a "emerging political philosophy"
Known as SATYAGRAHA (truth force)= confrontation without violence
Under British colonial rule
Little sense of "Indian" nationalism
British rule never assimilated to Indian culture (all British railroads, newspapers, schools, etc.)
British exploited India for industrialization purposes
This led to Indian awareness of the differences between them and alien rule; moreover, united many regions together through facilitation and communication
Prior to the 20th Century...
*Most important political expression of an all-Indian identity*
Made up of English-educated Indians (lawyers, teachers, etc.) from high caste Hindu families
This was a new kind of political protest where Indians hoped to gain a greater inclusion within the political, military & business life of British India
Argument for this was that the INC would better protect India's interests than foreign rulers
This was an ELITE movement... It was difficult to gain peasant followers
Indian National Congress (INC)
1917- In order to gain Indian support Britain promised for "the gradual development of self-governing institutions," causing Indian nationalists to want more rapid political change
Britain continues to taunt the Indians...
Ex. Britain attacks Islamic Ottoman Empire which antagonizes Indian Muslims
At the end of WWI...
Britain still denies Indians any major independent rights like promised
Influenza epidemic leaves millions dead
During WWI...
1914 Gandhi returned to India and became a very powerful leader within the INC
Promoted mass movements including peasants, artisans, capitalists, socialists, Hindus, Muslims, etc.
Once these movements spread, Britain repressed authority a bit, and allowed some Indian roles in political life
Gandhi became known as MAHATMA (Great Soul)
moral transformation
over social revolution
Believed "modern civilization (industrialization)" was a greater enemy than British rule
Gandhi Continued...
Not everyone agreed with Gandhi & INC 100%... Some people favored industrialization, violence, etc.
Started a nationalist division & smaller party movements
Pure Indian Nation (100% Hindus)
Hindus VS Muslims = most serious threat to the unified movement
All-India Muslim League: When Britain allowed more Indian representatives, they demanded separate electorates with a fixed # of seats on a local council for Muslims

So how did things change?
1937 election gave INC control of many provincial gov'ts
Teach Hindi in schools, protect cows from slaughter, etc.
These political actions antagonized the Muslims even more
Muslim League and leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, argued that Muslim major regions should have separate political status. They separated themselves into a new region...
Pakistan- Land of Pure
Hindu VS Muslim Split Explained
Gandhi & INC agreed to partition from Muslim India as Britain declared their intention to leave India after WWII
1947 Colonial India became independent, but was split...
1) Muslim Pakistan
2) Hindu India governed by secular state
1948 millions have died from this point due to violence
Gandhi assassinated by Hindu extremist
A Multi-Nation India
South Africa
Gained independence from Great Britain in 1910
Now under the governmental control of a <20% white settler minority= black African majority had no political rights within central state
Boers & Afrikaners- politically dominant (Dutch settlers). More permanent residents than colonial intruders
Life and standard of living was "threatened" by black African majority rule
Mature industrial economy
Gold & Diamond mining
Secondary Industry- rubber, automobiles, steel, etc.
Since 1960's, economy benefited from foreign loans and investments
Overwhelming prominence of race
Policy of
- racial segregation
"Pass laws"
"Native Reserves"
Unique Features of S. African Situation
Established in 1912 in response to various forms of opposition (rebellions, strikes, etc.)
Led by educated, professional, middle-class Africans
Sought to be accepted as "
civilized men
" instead of overthrowing existing order
Appealed to liberal, humane and Christian values
For four decades, tries peaceful to moderate protests, petitions, conferences and more
"Produced nothing..."
Afrikaner-led National Party rose in 1948
African National Congress (ANC)
Nelson Mandela is an active member
New base support- Non-violent civil disobedience
boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, etc.
South African gov't response= tremendous repression
Ex. 1960 Sharpville shooting, ANC ban, ANC leader imprisonment, etc.
Active opposition called for some acts of sabotage, assassinations and guerrilla warfare preparation
Student groups & Black Consciousness movement: Effort to foster pride, unity and political awareness among African majority
ANC During the 1950's
Youth Protest Impact
1976 youth-ran protest in a segregated, impoverished black neighborhood called Soweto, outside of Johannesburg
Why?- Disapproval of gov't decision to enforce education for Africans in the "hated language" of the white Afrikaners rather than English
1979 South Africa's black labor movement legalized- become active and political
Mid 1980's- urban violence and radicalization of youth led to state of emergency... lol????
June 1986= 10 yr anniversary of Soweto uprising
Commemorated with a general strike with 2 mill. people
Orchestrated by the Congress of S. African Trade Unions
By late 1980's, only solution was to talk to African nationalist leaders...not massive, bloody and futile struggle. Outcomes...
End of apartheid policies
Release of Mandela from prison
ANC now legal
1994- national elections
Divisions in
race, ethnicity
S. Africa Divided
Pan Africanist Congress
Favored broad alliance
Opposed apartheid
Rejected cooperation with other racial groups
Limited membership to black Africans
Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party
Leader- Gatsha Buthelezi
Cooperated with apartheid state
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