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A & P Ch. 3: Cells

Hole's Anatomy & Physiology 10th Edition
by

Cynthia Boylan

on 20 October 2016

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Transcript of A & P Ch. 3: Cells

Chapter 3: Cells
C. Cells are measured in
units called micrometers; animal cells tend to be 10 to 30 micrometers
E. A human egg cell is about 140
micrometers in diameter.
F. A red blood cell is about
7.5 micrometers in diameter.
II. A Composite Cell
A. Introduction
I. Introduction
2. Membrane characteristics
A & P Chapter 3: Cells
A. An adult human body
consists of about 75 trillion cells.
B. There are at least 260 different varieties of cells.
D. A
micrometer
equals 1 thousandth of a millimeter.
G. Typically the
shape
of a cell makes
its functions possible.
1. It's not possible to describe a typical cell because cells vary greatly in size, shape, content, and function.
2. A composite cell includes many known cell structures.
3. Three major parts of the cell are nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
4. Nucleus is enclosed by
nuclear envelope.
5.
Nucleus
contains DNA and is the control center for the cell.
6.
Cytoplasm
is a mass of fluid that surrounds the nucleus and is itself
encircled by the cell membrane.
7. Cell membrane surrounds
the cytoplasm.
8. Specialized structures within the cytoplasm are called
organelles
.
9. Cytosol is a liquid that suspends organelles.
B. Cell Membrane
1. General Characteristics
a.
Cell membrane
controls entrance and exit of substances into and out of the cell.
b. Cell membrane allows entry
and exit of only certain substances (
selectively permeable
).
c. Signal transduction is process in which cell receives & responds to incoming messages.
a. Cell membrane is mainly
composed of
lipids
and
proteins
, with some
carbohydrates
.
b. Cell membrane has a double layer of phospholipids.
c. Surfaces of cell membrane are formed by phosphate groups of phospholipid molecules.
d. Interior of cell membrane is
formed by the fatty acids of phospholipid molecules.
e.
Phospholipid bilayer
is permeable to lipid-soluble substances such as
lipids
,
steroid hormones
,
oxygen
, &
carbon dioxide
.
choline
=a basic compound C5H15NO2 that is found in various foods (as egg yolks and legumes) or is synthesized in the liver
phosphate
=composed of phosphorus and oxygen
glycerol
=A colorless, odorless, viscous metabolic intermediate and structural component
f. Phospholipid bilayer is not
permeable to water-soluble substances
such as proteins, sugars, nucleic acids, amino acids, & various ions.
g. Cholesterol molecules help stabilize the cell membrane.
h. Five types of membrane proteins are receptor proteins, integral proteins, enzymes, cellular adhesion molecules & cell surface proteins.
i.
Receptor proteins
function to receive and transmit messages into the cell.
j.
Intergral proteins
function
to form pores, channels, & carriers in cell membranes.
k. Enzymes of the membrane function in signal transduction.
l.
Cellular adhesion
molecules function to enable cells to stick to each other.
m.
Cell surface proteins
function to establish the cell as "self" or not foreign.
C. Cytoplasm
1.
Cytoskeleton
is protein rods
& tubules that form a supportive framework within a cell.
2. Function of
endoplasmic
reticulum
is to transport materials within the cell, to provide attachment sites for ribosomes, & to synthesize lipids & proteins.
Cell Membrane Structure Animation
http://www.susanahalpine.com/anim/Life/memb.htm

3.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum

is studded with ribosomes.
4.
Ribosomes
are sites of protein synthesis.
5. Proteins move from the ER to the golgi apparatus.
6.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

is endoplasmic reticulum that lacks
ribosomes.
7.
SER
contains enzymes that are used for lipid synthesis, fat absorption, & the break down of drugs.
8. Ribosomes are found on endoplasmic reticulum & free floating in the cytoplasm.
9.
Ribosomes
are composed of RNA & proteins; they are the sites of protein synthesis.
Protein Synthesis Animation
http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=protein+synthesis+animation&FORM=VIRE4#view=detail&mid=A558CA27923DC3BC2FD0A558CA27923DC3BC2FD0
11. Golgi apparatus is a
group of flattened, membranous sacs.

Golgi apparatus
functions to package & modify proteins for transport
& secretion in membranous sacs
called vesicles.
Function of Golgi apparatus
http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=golgi+apparatus+animation&FORM=VIRE7#view=detail&mid=E3A025A574C2830427B6E3A025A574C2830427B6
12. Vesicle trafficking is
movement of substances within
cells by way of vesicles.
13.
Mitochondria
is a membranous sac with inner partitions; the 2 layers are an outer membrane and an inner membrane;
mitochondria
release energy from food molecules & transform energy into usable forms.
14. Christae are shelf like partitions on the inner membrane of mitochondria;
Function of Mitochondria Animation
http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=mitochondria+function&qs=VI&form=QBVR&pq=mitochondria&sc=8-12&sp=4&sk=VI3#view=detail&mid=8F3C876BEF822F1D3FE18F3C876BEF822F1D3FE1
15.
Lysosomes
=contain
digestive enzymes that
digest worn out cellular parts of substances that enter the cells
16.
Peroxisomes
=
most abundant in liver &
kidney cells; contain about 50 peroxidases enzymes that breakdown important organic molecules such as uric acid (cause problems like gout or kidney stones), amino acids, & fatty acids ( a major source of energy)
17.
Centrosome
=usually
located near nucleus; distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division
18.
Cilium
=a motile (capable of motion) projection attached beneath cell membrane; found on cells of trachea and fallopian tubes; move dust and mucous away from lungs
19.
Flagellum
=motile/moving
projection attached beneath cell membrane that enable sperm cells to move.
20.
Vesicles
=membranous sacs formed by pinching off of cell membrane; store and transport substances within the cell
21.
Microfilaments
=
tiny rods of protein actin (critical to cell motility, cell shape & polarity)
22.
Microtubules
=long, slender tube larger than microfilaments; maintain shape of cell & provide movement in cilia and flagella
23.
Inclusions
=
chemicals in cell cytoplasm
such as fat, glycogen, & melanin; lifeless & often temporary
III. Movements
Into & Out of the Cell
A. Introduction
1.
Cell membrane
controls which substances enter or exit the cell.
2. Four types of physical processes=diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, & filtration
3. Three types of physiological mechanisms=active transport, endocytosis, & exocytosis
B.
Diffusion
1. Tendancy of atoms, molecules, & ions to move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
Concentration gradient=
the difference in concentrations
2. In human body cells,
oxygen
usually diffuses into cell
&
carbon dioxide
diffuses out of cell
3. Five substances that cross cell membrane through simple diffusion=
lipid-soluble substances, oxygen, carbon dioxide, steroids, & general anesthetics
4. Three factors that
influence diffusion rate=
distance
,
concentration gradient
, &
temperature
5. Diffusion tends to be more rapid over shorter distances, larger concentration gradients, & at higher temperatures.
D.
Osmosis
1. Diffusion of a solution across a semipermeable membrane (passive transport)
2. Water tends to
diffuse toward solutions of greater osmotic pressure.
5.
Hypertonic
solutions have a Lower osmotic pressure than body fluids; cells
shrink
in hypertonic solutions. .
6.
Hypotonic
solutions have a greater osmotic pressure than body fluids; cells
swell
in hypotonic solutions
E.
Filtration
= Molecules
are forced through a membrane. This process is used to separate solids from water. The force that is used is produced by blood pressure
F.
Active transport
= Movement from lower to higher concentration. This requires protein carriers & cellular energy; sugars, amino acids, and ions (Na, K, H, & Ca) use active transport.
C.
Facilitated Diffusion
1. Requires
protein carriers
to move substances like glucose & other sugars from higher to lower concentration but no energy
2.
Insulin
hormone promotes facilitated diffusion of
glucose
.
G.
Endocytosis
1. The process of a cell engulfing
a substance by forming a vesicle
around the substance.
H.
Exocytosis
=process of secreting a substance from a cell stored in a vesicle like neurotransmitters secreted by
nerve cells.
2.
Pinocytosis
moves tiny droplets,
phagocytosis
moves solids, &
receptor-mediated
can take in solid particles like bacteria & cellular debris.
I.
Transcytosis
1. Moves substances from one end of a cell to another end of the cell.
2. HIV uses transcytosis to infect the human body.
The End :)
Hi, It's Griffin!
xD
10.
Nucleolus
Primary function is to assemble ribosomes; is the largest structure in the cell nucleus.
4.
Isotonic
solutions have the same osmotic pressure as body fluids
Full transcript