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A & P Ch. 3: Cells
Transcript of A & P Ch. 3: Cells
C. Cells are measured in
units called micrometers; animal cells tend to be 10 to 30 micrometers
E. A human egg cell is about 140
micrometers in diameter.
F. A red blood cell is about
7.5 micrometers in diameter.
II. A Composite Cell
2. Membrane characteristics
A & P Chapter 3: Cells
A. An adult human body
consists of about 75 trillion cells.
B. There are at least 260 different varieties of cells.
equals 1 thousandth of a millimeter.
G. Typically the
of a cell makes
its functions possible.
1. It's not possible to describe a typical cell because cells vary greatly in size, shape, content, and function.
2. A composite cell includes many known cell structures.
3. Three major parts of the cell are nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
4. Nucleus is enclosed by
contains DNA and is the control center for the cell.
is a mass of fluid that surrounds the nucleus and is itself
encircled by the cell membrane.
7. Cell membrane surrounds
8. Specialized structures within the cytoplasm are called
9. Cytosol is a liquid that suspends organelles.
B. Cell Membrane
1. General Characteristics
controls entrance and exit of substances into and out of the cell.
b. Cell membrane allows entry
and exit of only certain substances (
c. Signal transduction is process in which cell receives & responds to incoming messages.
a. Cell membrane is mainly
, with some
b. Cell membrane has a double layer of phospholipids.
c. Surfaces of cell membrane are formed by phosphate groups of phospholipid molecules.
d. Interior of cell membrane is
formed by the fatty acids of phospholipid molecules.
is permeable to lipid-soluble substances such as
=a basic compound C5H15NO2 that is found in various foods (as egg yolks and legumes) or is synthesized in the liver
=composed of phosphorus and oxygen
=A colorless, odorless, viscous metabolic intermediate and structural component
f. Phospholipid bilayer is not
permeable to water-soluble substances
such as proteins, sugars, nucleic acids, amino acids, & various ions.
g. Cholesterol molecules help stabilize the cell membrane.
h. Five types of membrane proteins are receptor proteins, integral proteins, enzymes, cellular adhesion molecules & cell surface proteins.
function to receive and transmit messages into the cell.
to form pores, channels, & carriers in cell membranes.
k. Enzymes of the membrane function in signal transduction.
molecules function to enable cells to stick to each other.
Cell surface proteins
function to establish the cell as "self" or not foreign.
is protein rods
& tubules that form a supportive framework within a cell.
2. Function of
is to transport materials within the cell, to provide attachment sites for ribosomes, & to synthesize lipids & proteins.
Cell Membrane Structure Animation
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
is studded with ribosomes.
are sites of protein synthesis.
5. Proteins move from the ER to the golgi apparatus.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
is endoplasmic reticulum that lacks
contains enzymes that are used for lipid synthesis, fat absorption, & the break down of drugs.
8. Ribosomes are found on endoplasmic reticulum & free floating in the cytoplasm.
are composed of RNA & proteins; they are the sites of protein synthesis.
Protein Synthesis Animation
11. Golgi apparatus is a
group of flattened, membranous sacs.
functions to package & modify proteins for transport
& secretion in membranous sacs
Function of Golgi apparatus
12. Vesicle trafficking is
movement of substances within
cells by way of vesicles.
is a membranous sac with inner partitions; the 2 layers are an outer membrane and an inner membrane;
release energy from food molecules & transform energy into usable forms.
14. Christae are shelf like partitions on the inner membrane of mitochondria;
Function of Mitochondria Animation
digestive enzymes that
digest worn out cellular parts of substances that enter the cells
most abundant in liver &
kidney cells; contain about 50 peroxidases enzymes that breakdown important organic molecules such as uric acid (cause problems like gout or kidney stones), amino acids, & fatty acids ( a major source of energy)
located near nucleus; distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division
=a motile (capable of motion) projection attached beneath cell membrane; found on cells of trachea and fallopian tubes; move dust and mucous away from lungs
projection attached beneath cell membrane that enable sperm cells to move.
=membranous sacs formed by pinching off of cell membrane; store and transport substances within the cell
tiny rods of protein actin (critical to cell motility, cell shape & polarity)
=long, slender tube larger than microfilaments; maintain shape of cell & provide movement in cilia and flagella
chemicals in cell cytoplasm
such as fat, glycogen, & melanin; lifeless & often temporary
Into & Out of the Cell
controls which substances enter or exit the cell.
2. Four types of physical processes=diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, & filtration
3. Three types of physiological mechanisms=active transport, endocytosis, & exocytosis
1. Tendancy of atoms, molecules, & ions to move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
the difference in concentrations
2. In human body cells,
usually diffuses into cell
diffuses out of cell
3. Five substances that cross cell membrane through simple diffusion=
lipid-soluble substances, oxygen, carbon dioxide, steroids, & general anesthetics
4. Three factors that
influence diffusion rate=
5. Diffusion tends to be more rapid over shorter distances, larger concentration gradients, & at higher temperatures.
1. Diffusion of a solution across a semipermeable membrane (passive transport)
2. Water tends to
diffuse toward solutions of greater osmotic pressure.
solutions have a Lower osmotic pressure than body fluids; cells
in hypertonic solutions. .
solutions have a greater osmotic pressure than body fluids; cells
in hypotonic solutions
are forced through a membrane. This process is used to separate solids from water. The force that is used is produced by blood pressure
= Movement from lower to higher concentration. This requires protein carriers & cellular energy; sugars, amino acids, and ions (Na, K, H, & Ca) use active transport.
to move substances like glucose & other sugars from higher to lower concentration but no energy
hormone promotes facilitated diffusion of
1. The process of a cell engulfing
a substance by forming a vesicle
around the substance.
=process of secreting a substance from a cell stored in a vesicle like neurotransmitters secreted by
moves tiny droplets,
moves solids, &
can take in solid particles like bacteria & cellular debris.
1. Moves substances from one end of a cell to another end of the cell.
2. HIV uses transcytosis to infect the human body.
The End :)
Hi, It's Griffin!
Primary function is to assemble ribosomes; is the largest structure in the cell nucleus.
solutions have the same osmotic pressure as body fluids