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Roberts-2 Apperception Test for Children &
Transcript of Roberts-2 Apperception Test for Children &
Apperception Test for Children &
* For assessment of children & adolescents 6-18 yrs. old
* Uses a projective method by interpreting and scoring narrative stories told by the children about each of the 16 suggestive stimulus pictures of human social interactions
* The purpose is to provide a measure of the child's social understanding through their freely expressed narrative
*Approx. duration to administer & score = 30-40 minutes
Where did it come from?
* Original Roberts Apperception Test for Children (1982) developed during a particular psychological context
* Major influences: Anna Freud
* Similar to other projective tests like the ink blot, the RATC was distinguished by human figures and social interactions
* As more structured and "objective" tests (the MMPI) were becoming more popular, the RATC revised its norms and scoring toward "objectifying" the perceptions of children and adolescents
Parallel test picture for black, white, and hispanic children/teens
Aged ------- extended to 18 yrs. old
Sample of 1,000 representative of new norms for the U.S. population.
Case Studies Used for Reference:
Based on comparison between the standardized sample and a clinically-referred sample of 467 children
New norms were supposed to represent *ethnicity *gender *geographic region *parental education
of children/teens in the U.S.
The 4 normative cases for ref.
1. White, female, age 6, western region, both parents completed high school.
2. White, male, age 9, eastern region, mother completed high school, father attended some college
3. Black, male, age 12, southern region, both parents attended college but had not obtained 4-year degrees
4. White, female, age 16, midwestern region, both parents have obtained 4-year college degrees
17 case examples selected for the reference guide:
Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder, Child
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Mild Mental Retardation
Referenced Clinical Cases
1. Black, male, 9, ADHD
2. White, male, 8, Autistic Disorder
3. White, male, 8, PTSD/Sexual Abuse
4. White, male, 10, Mild Mental Retardation
5. Hispanic/white, male, 12, ODD
6. White, male, 8, Bipolar Disorder, Child
7. White, female, 15, Bipolar, Adolescent
8. White, male, 13, Asperger's
9. Hispanic, female, 14, Major Depressive
10. Asian, female, 12, Generalized Anxiety
11. White, male, 17, Conduct Disorder
12. Hispanic, female, 18, Schizophrenia
13. White, male,15, Schizoaffective
Developmental/ Adaptive Scales:
*Popular Pull (POP)
*Complete Meaning (MEAN)
*(PID1)- recognition, no preceding factors
*(PID2)- description of situation, no internal process
*(PID3)- clarification, some internal process
*(PID4)- definition, with reasons for internal process
*(PID5)- explanation, full identification of all elements
Summary of a nonclinical child and adolescence:
1. Behavior during test is socially appropriate, limits do not need to be imposed
3. Open attitude and lack of defensiveness
7. Ability to perceive and confront life problems in a realistic manner and find positive resolutions
10. Positive perception of the support system and an expectation that it will be responsive to needs and problems
*(RES1) - simple, easy closure
*(RES2) -easy, realistically positive outcome
*(RES3) - describes constructive resolution
*(RES4) - constructive resolution of feelings and situation
*(RES5) - elaborated process, possible insight
*Unresolved Outcome (OUT1-UNRS) - situation left in present terms
*Nonadaptive Outcome (OUT2-NON)- ending does not resolve problem
*Maladaptive Outcome (OUT3-MAL) - ending adds to problem or is socially unnacceptable
*Unrealistic Outcome (OUT4-UNRL) - involves unrealistic or wishful thinking
Unusual or Atypical Repsonses
* Refusal (REF) - no response b/c of resistance of inability
*No Score (NOS) - no scoreable content, physical description only
*Antisocial (ANTI) - breaking family, school, or community rules or laws
* (ATYP1)- illogical, cognitive distortion, loose thoughts
*(ATYP2) - theme misidentification
*(ATYP3) - person misidentification
*(ATYP7) - Death of Main Figure
*(ATYP8) - sexual
*(ATYP9) - Other
Suggested Card Themes
Card #1. Family Interaction (parents/child)
Card #2. Maternal Support
Card #3. Schoolwork
Card #4. Peer Support ...(ATYP7?)
Card #5. Parental Affection
Card #6. Peer or Racial Interaction
Card #7. Anxiety or Illness
Card #8. Family Interaction
Card #9. Physical Aggression
Card #10. Sibling Rivalry
Card #11. Fear
Card #12. Maternal Depression or Illness
Card #13. Aggression Release
Card #14. Maternal Limit Setting
Card #15. Female in bath
Card #16. Paternal Support
Training packages for schools, clinics, and graduate student :)
* Designed to help professionals initiating behavioral and/or academic interventions
* Helps clinicians integrate test scores and interpretations into school, special ed., and clinical case reports
"As a child becomes more socially experienced their stories should typically reflect increased awareness of social convention, greater theme differentiation, and more clear ideas for the resolution of conflict or themes."
Central Concept of Test Approach
:areas of action or fields of interaction for the child and includes child's own resources for functioning
cognitive functioning, intelligence, problem- solving ability, beliefs, attitudes, emotions,behaviors, physical characteristics, dev. level
mother, father, parental unit, siblings, other caregivers, living situation, extended family
peers, school, teachers, neighborhood, community, religion, subculture, general culture
- 2 hr. DVD
- workbook (2 case studies and 2 complete sets of stories)
-reference materials: guidelines for administration, scoring, test interpretation
-2 blank record forms to score case studies from the workbook
1 set of Test Pictures (white, black, OR hispanic children)
25 record forms
1 quick reference guide
1 set of Test Pictures (hispanic, black OR white)
25 record forms = $41.50
Manual = $61.00
Casebook/Reference Guide = $61.00
* Kit w/unlimited -use scoring CD (WHITE CHILDREN) = $329.50
* Cultural/racial issues
* Gender issues
* Very subjective/suggestive
* Poor reliability
* Poor validity
* Pathologizes childhood/adoloescents
Available Resources scales
* Self Support - Feeling (SUSP-F)
*Support Self- Advocacy (SUPS-A)
*Support Other - Feeling (SUPO-F
*Support Other - Help (SUPO-H)
*Reliance on Other (REL)
*Limit Setting (LIM)
Good tool, poor test
Murray, H.A. (1943).
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): Manual.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Morgan, W. (2002). "Origin and History of the Earliest Thematic Apperception test". Journal of Personality Assessment 79 (3): 422–445.
Roberts, G.E. (1994).
Interpretive handbook for the Roberts Apperception Test for children.
Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services
Roberts, G.E., & Gruber, C. P. (2005).
Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services
Roberts, G.E., & McArthur, D.S. (1982).
Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC): Manual.
Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Holt, R. R. (1999). Empiricism and the Thematic Apperception Test: Validity is the payoff. In L. Gieser & M. I. Stein (Eds.), Evocative Images: The Thematic Apperception Test, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.