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Ch. 11: Complex Inheritance & Human Heridity
Transcript of Ch. 11: Complex Inheritance & Human Heridity
11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance
Analyze genetic patterns to determine
of dominant and recessive
from genetic information.
11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance
Distinguish between various complex
Explain how the
can influence the
of an organism.
11.3 Chromosomes & Human Heredity
karyotypes from those with
numbers of chromosomes.
Define and describe the role of
Relate the effect of
to Down Syndrome and other abnormal chromosome numbers.
Recessive disorders: expressed when homozygous recessive (cc)
Carrier for recessive disorder = Cc
Dominant disorders: expressed when at least one dominant allele is present (Dd or DD)
Traces inheritance of a trait through several generations
By knowing physical traits, genealogists can determine what genes an individual is most likely to have.
Scientists use pedigree analysis:
to study inheritance patterns
to determine phenotypes
to ascertain genotypes within a family
Incomplete Dominance (intermediate phenotype)
Nondisjunction & Others
Codominance (both alleles expressed in heterozygous condition)
Ex: ABO Blood Groups (3 alleles)
normal blood cell
Epistasis (one gene hides effect of other gene)
Gender determined by sex chromosomes (X, Y)
X contains genes for male and female development
Y contains genes for male development
Genes located on X chromosome
Much more likely to occur in males
Ex: color blindness, hemophilia
affected by multiple genes
Diet and exercise
Sunlight and water
Help differentiate between genetic and environmental effects
pairs of homologous chromosomes arranged in decreasing size
DNA with protein
protects structure of chromosome
Sister chromatids fail to separate properly
Ex: Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)
autosomal (not found on X or Y)
expressed in only one gender
associated with primary or secondary sexual characteristics
Ex: genes which influence how much milk a lactating mother produces when she’s nursing
(genes are carried by both males and females, but only females ever express them)