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Ch. 11: Complex Inheritance & Human Heridity

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Benjamin Fisher

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Ch. 11: Complex Inheritance & Human Heridity

Ch. 11: Complex Inheritance & Human Heredity
Honors Biology
11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance
Analyze genetic patterns to determine
dominant
or
recessive
inheritance patterns.
Summarize
examples
of dominant and recessive
disorders
.
Construct
human pedigrees
from genetic information.
11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance
Distinguish between various complex
inheritance patterns
.
Analyze
sex-linked
and
sex-limited
inheritance patterns.
Explain how the
environment
can influence the
phenotype
of an organism.
11.3 Chromosomes & Human Heredity
Distinguish
normal
karyotypes from those with
abnormal
numbers of chromosomes.
Define and describe the role of
telomeres
.
Relate the effect of
nondisjunction
to Down Syndrome and other abnormal chromosome numbers.
Assess the
benefits
and
risks
of diagnostic
fetal testing
.
Genetic Disorders
Recessive disorders: expressed when homozygous recessive (cc)
Carrier for recessive disorder = Cc



Dominant disorders: expressed when at least one dominant allele is present (Dd or DD)
Pedigrees
Traces inheritance of a trait through several generations
Genetic Patterns
By knowing physical traits, genealogists can determine what genes an individual is most likely to have.
Scientists use pedigree analysis:
to study inheritance patterns
to determine phenotypes
to ascertain genotypes within a family
cystic fibrosis
achondroplasia
Sex-linked &
Sex-limited
Incomplete Dominance (intermediate phenotype)
Environmental Effects
Complex Patterns
Telomeres
Nondisjunction & Others
Comparing Karyotypes
Fetal Testing
Codominance (both alleles expressed in heterozygous condition)
Ex: ABO Blood Groups (3 alleles)
Sickle-cell Anemia
sickle cell
normal blood cell
Multiple alleles
Epistasis (one gene hides effect of other gene)
Sex determination
:
Gender determined by sex chromosomes (X, Y)

X contains genes for male and female development

Y contains genes for male development
Sex-linked Traits:
Genes located on X chromosome
Much more likely to occur in males
Ex: color blindness, hemophilia
Polygenic traits:
affected by multiple genes
Environmental Influences:
Environmental factors
Diet and exercise
Sunlight and water
Temperature
Twin Studies:
Help differentiate between genetic and environmental effects

Appear frequently
in twins:
controlled by
heredity
Expressed differently
in twins:
influenced by
environment
Karyotype:
pairs of homologous chromosomes arranged in decreasing size
Telomere caps:
DNA with protein
protects structure of chromosome
Sister chromatids fail to separate properly
Ex: Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)
normal
XXY (Klinefelter's)
Sex-limited Traits:
autosomal (not found on X or Y)

expressed in only one gender

associated with primary or secondary sexual characteristics

Ex: genes which influence how much milk a lactating mother produces when she’s nursing
(genes are carried by both males and females, but only females ever express them)
Full transcript