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Personality Traits & Temperament

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Farm Saephan

on 1 August 2013

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Transcript of Personality Traits & Temperament

The Big Five Personality Dimensions
Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions.
What Is Personality?
What Is Temperament?
How/ When Do We Develop Them?
Video
“Temperament is the foundation, personality is the building"
Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory
Gordon's Trait Theory suggests that human behavior is measured by habitual patterns of behavior throughout one's lifetime. He created a culmination of 4,000 traits broken up into 3 categories:
Cardinal: This trait is what dominates a person's entire behavior. Not everyone has a cardinal trait, because they lack a theme that governs their lives.
Central: This is a general characteristic that can be seen in anyone. For example, "Patience" can be a central trait.
Secondary: These are traits that are only found in certain circumstances. For example, one's "likes" and "dislikes".
Raymond Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factors
Hans Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality
Temperament is developed genetically, and while personality has genetic influences as well, environmental, educational, and life experiences are key factors.


Temperament is that aspect of our personalities that is based on our genes. Your temperament is a blank page. It is your basic inherited style. It is who you are. This varies based on temperament blend and our individual personality development.
In order to adequately map out personality, one had to utilize L-Data (life records or observation), Q data (information from questionnaires), and T-data (information from objective tests
Warmth
Tension
Emotional Stability
Openness to Change
Unlike Allport and Cattell, Eysenck only focused on 3 universal traits:
1. Introversion/Extraversion
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability
3. Psychoticism
Openness to experience
I have a rich vocabulary.
I have a vivid imagination.

Conscientiousness
I am always prepared.
I pay attention to details.

Extraversion
I am the life of the party.
I don't mind being the center of attention.

Agreeableness
I am interested in people.
I sympathize with others' feelings.

Neuroticism
I change my mood a lot.
I get irritated easily.


Why It Works
It is able to measure different traits in personality without overlapping. During studies, The Big Five personality traits show consistency in interviews, self-descriptions, and when observed. Acronyms commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE.
The Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck theories set the foundation for The Big Five Dimensions. Allport and Cattell focused on too many traits, while Eysenck focused on too few.
What Is It?
What Are They?
VIDEO
Alexander Thomas &
Stella Chess' 3 Temperaments
- Slow to Warm Up
- Difficult
- Easy
How did Thomas & Chess derive their theory?
Nine temperament traits were used to assess a child's temperament in the 1950's:
Activity Level
Regularity
Approach/Withdrawal
Adaptability
Persistence
Intensity
Distractibility
Sensory Threshold
Mood
The Four Basic Temperaments
SANGUINE - sociable, talkative
CHOLERIC - leader, aggressive
MELANCHOLIC - thoughtful, creative
PHLEGMATIC - calm, lazy
David Kiersey's
Temperament Theory
The other four basic temperaments include:
The Artisan (SP)
The Guardian (SJ)
The Rational (NT)
The Idealist (NF)
Developmental Milestones
Career Path Connections
Healthcare
Education
Law Enforcement

Temperament
Personality Traits
• Physical- Development peaks and it is the height of sensory sharpness, strength, reaction time, and cardiovascular fitness.

• Emotional- While people claim that sensitivity, warmth, and intelligence are more important to us, we may never learn about other people’s personalities if they do not meet minimal standards for attractiveness.

• Social- Marriage is still the most common lifestyle among adults aged 35-44. People in their early twenty’s are more commonly found to be single, not married which could be due to more young adults postponing marriage to pursue educational and career goals.

• Cognitive- Memory begins to decline at this point. Fluid intelligence peaks in early adulthood and verbal and quantitative capacities are developed.

Bibliography
Cherry, Kendra. "Cattell's 16 Personality Factors." About.com Psychology. Web. 16 July 2013.

Cherry, Kendra. "The Big Five Personality Dimensions." About.com Psychology. Web. 16 July 2013.

Cherry, Kendra. "Trait Theory of Personality." About.com Psychology. Web. 16 July 2013.

"Child Temperament." Child Temperament. Web. 16 July 2013.

"Personality Test - Keirsey Temperament Website." Personality Test - Keirsey Temperament Website. Web. 16 July 2013.

Petrus, Steven. "Temperament Is What?" Petrus Psychology. 20 Nov. 2010. Web. 16 July 2013.

Richards, David J. "Index: Personality Theories, Types and Tests." Personality Types: the Four Temperaments. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 July 2013.

"Understanding Temperament." Ready For Life. 2010. Web. 23 July 2013

"What Is TEMPERAMENT?" Psychology Dictionary. Web. 22 July 2013.
Rathus, Spencer. Introduction to Life Span. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Cherry, Kendra. "Cattell's 16 Personality Factors." About.com Psychology. Web. 16 July 2013.
Cherry, Kendra. "The Big Five Personality Dimensions." About.com Psychology. Web. 16 July 2013.
Cherry, Kendra. "Trait Theory of Personality." About.com Psychology. Web. 16 July 2013.
Personality Traits & Temperaments
Farm Stacy Saephan
Helen Dao
Kathy Rosales
Legesie Harvey
Melissa Vincent
Roberto Nochez
Tiffany Champney
Tyler Rios
Vanessa Torres



Early Adulthood
Developmental Milestones
Middle Adulthood
Physical- Changes in metabolism, muscle mass, strength, bone density, aerobic capacity, blood-sugar tolerance, and ability to regulate body temperature may be moderated and sometimes reversed through exercise and diet.

Emotional-Some theorists paint the picture of middle-aged people suddenly focusing on tragedy, loss, or doom; others have found people to be in or entering the prime of life.

Social- In terms of their family relationships, their generation is “sandwiched” in between their own children and their parents.

Cognitive- Peak time for intellectual functions but there may be some loss of processing speed and some lapses in memory; however these are often counterbalanced by expertise.

Developmental Milestones
Late Adulthood
• Physical- Physical changes apparent in middle adulthood continue through late adulthood.

• Emotional-The stresses involved in building and maintaining a career, selecting a mate, and rearing children are mostly gone and questions of identity are typically settled.

• Social- Family and social relationships provide some of the most obvious and most important elements in the social lives of older adults.

• Cognitive- Fluid intelligence is most vulnerable to decline in late adulthood but crystallized intelligence can continue to improve throughout much of late adulthood.

http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Warfield3.html
"Personality Test - Keirsey Temperament Website." Personality Test - Keirsey Temperament Website. Web. 16 July 2013.
http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
Petrus, Steven. "Temperament Is What?" Petrus Psychology. 20 Nov. 2010. Web. 16 July 2013.
Developmental Milestones
Infancy to Toddler (Birth – 3 years)
A child’s cognitive development begins with alertness, awareness, recognition, and interest in various forms of stimuli. You can tell child’s temperament by the intensity of their reaction to these stimuli.
Preschool (3 – 5 years)
At this age the child enters preschool and begins to expand their social relationships. They begin to learn the difference between right and wrong and this concept directs the way they behave and becomes important in their self assessment and self esteem which will affect their self esteem.
Developmental Milestones
School Age (6 – 11 years)
At this age, the child is now able to understand other’s perspectives. The child learns to adopt age appropriate social roles along with gender specific roles. They begin to develop a better sense of self as an individual, they are capable of introspection, and their self-worth and self-esteen, is elevated by their ability to perform.
Adolescence (12-17 years)
Self-esteem is now affected by acceptance by peer groups. The awkwardness that some face during puberty may affect their ability to fit in and be accepted by peer groups. In late adolescence peer groups play a less significant role and the adolescent develops a stronger, more individualistic sense of self and is no longer significantly reliant on peer groups for emotional stability and support. Their self esteem is no longer affected by their ability to perform but rather by their ability to live up to internalized standards.
www.co.wright.mn.us/forms/humanservices
Rathus, Spencer. Introduction to Life Span. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
http://www.psychpage.com/family/library/temperm.htm
http://www.odportal.com/personality/four-temperaments.htm
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