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X4062 Lecture 1: Short Term Memory

X4062: M:O&S - Lecture 1
by

Stephen Darling

on 1 March 2016

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Transcript of X4062 Lecture 1: Short Term Memory

Process: The Memory Event
Structure: Long and Short Term Memory
Dichotomies:
Implicit Memory & Explicit Memory
Semantic Memory and Episodic Memory
Encoding

Storage / Retention

Retrieval
X4062 Memory: Origins and Structures
Thank you for signing up for this module
I Love Paris
Writer(s): cole porter

I love paris in the spring time
I love paris in the fall
I love paris in the summer when it sizzles
I love paris in the winter when it drizzles

I love paris every moment
Every moment of the year
I love paris, why oh why do I love paris
Because my love is here
Dichotomies of Memory
The Memory Event
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Legible
if illegible
Failure at encoding
Outcome: Forgetting
Not Degraded
if degraded
Failure at retention/storage
Outcome: Forgetting
Illegible
if illegible
Failure at encoding
Causes encoding-retrieval interaction
Outcome: Forgetting
Lost/Inaccessible
if lost
Failure at retrieval
Outcome: Forgetting
Multiple Kinds of Memory
Environment
Sensory Memory
Short Term Memory
Long Term memory
Sensory / Iconic Memory
BCXY
NFRW
TZKD
Sperling (1960, 1963)
Fast Decay
Decay modified by masking
Sensory
Short Term Memory
Effortful storage of information over brief durations (seconds, not minutes or hours)
Storage of random, unrelated information (often)
Telephone numbers
Digit Span
Lectures 2 and 3: 'Working Memory'
Long Term Memory
Long Term
Memory (LTM)
Explicit
(declarative)
Memory
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
Implicit
(non-declarative)
memory
Conditioning, skills,
priming (etc.)
Diagram after Squire (1992)
Long Term Memory
Long Term
Memory (LTM)
Explicit
(declarative)
Memory
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
Implicit
(non-declarative)
memory
Conditioning, skills,
priming (etc.)
Diagram after Squire (1992)
Memory that occurs without a conscious effort at encoding, retention or retrieval
Implicit Memory
Procedural / Skill Learning
Serial Reaction Time
Image: Clark & Ivry, 2010
Pursuit Rotor
Milner, 1962; Milner, Corkin, & Teuber,
1968
HM
Mirror writing
Nissen et al (1987)
Dual task
Amnesic Patients
Priming
Increased sensitivity to certain stimuli due to prior exposure
Perceptual
Conceptual
Visual Word Priming:
Study list (can be implicit or explicit)
Retrieval (always implicit):
Stem completion: FOR__________
Fragment completion: A_a_i_n
Brief duration word identification (35 ms)
Lexical decision (word/nonword): Quork, Naval etc.
Facilitation in accuracy and/or RT
'Study' phase
'Test' phase
'Study' phase
'Test' phase
Truck
Truck (not
Truck)
Truck
TRUCK or
Truck
or even Van
Or even...
Graf, Shimamura Squire, J exp psychol gen, 1985
Associative Link
Linked by frequent co-occurrence
Lennon - McCartney
Castle - Knight
Chair - Table
Particularly common for People
Categorical Link
Linked by shared category membership
Lennon - Bono
Chair - Cupboard
Castle - Church
Associative links may also be categorical
Categories previously thought to be unimportant for people as opposed to objects (Barry, Johnston & Scanlan, 1998)
Evidence for categorical priming for familiar people: Carson & Burton, 2001
Tulving, Schacter & Stark (1982), J Exp Psychol: Learning Memory Cognition, 17, 595-617.
Illegible
if illegible
Failure at encoding
Causes encoding-retrieval interaction
Outcome: Forgetting
Explicit (Declarative Memory): Memory for specific events or facts. What we would usually 'think of' as memory
Explicit Memory
Events and Knowledge: Episodic and Semantic Memory
http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/GCPWS/Tulving/Tulving.html
Semantic Memory (Knowledge)
Paris is the capital of france
The Louvre is a museum there
Nicolas Sarkozy is president
I Remember Visiting Paris in the Springtime last year
We had coffee outside the Louvre. It was Expensive and did not taste nice. Molly dropped her croissant and a dog ate it.
I remember I was driving to Bristol when I heard that Nicolas Sarkozy had been made president.
Episodic Memory (Events)
'Mental Time Travel'
Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory: Segregation?
Episodic Memory and the Brain
Wheeler, Stuss & Tulving (1997)
Autonoetic (self-knowing) awareness
Noetic (Knowing) awareness
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage related to specific episodic memory defecits
Source amnesia in PFC patients
(Janowsky
et al, 1989)
Tulving, Kapur, Craik, Moscovitch & Houle (1994)
HERA: Hemispheric Encoding and Retrieval Hypothesis
Left hem, strongly involved in verbal encoding, right in retrieval
Only verbal material: Nonverbal encoding activated right PFC (Wagner, Schacter, Rotte, Koutstaal, Maril, Dale et al, 1998)
Verbal Encoding
Episodic Retrieval
Hippocampus
Brewer et al 1998
Wagner
et al 1998
Taxi drivers (compared to bus drivers):
Greater gray matter volume in mid-posterior hippocampi
Less in anterior
Complex and effective spatial representation of London
At expense of capacity reduction for new visuo-spatial learning.
Changes in brain structure due to behaviour?
Semantic Memory
Semantic Networks
Collins and Quillian, 1969: Heirarchical Model
A canary is yellow: Quicker RT
A canary can fly: Slower RT

Answer by inference to category descriptor
Did Leonardo da vainci have knees?
Rigid Categories are problematic
eg. Rosch (1973)
Birds eat worms
I hear a bird singing
I watched a bird fly over the house
Penguin, Ostrich, Robin, Eagle
Collins and Loftus, 1975: Spreading Activation
Activation spreads to other, closely related, concepts
Associational relationships, not heirarchical
Schema Theory
War of the Ghosts

One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said:

"What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people."

One of the young men said,"I have no arrows."

"Arrows are in the canoe," they said.

"I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you," he said, turning to the other, "may go with them."

So one of the young men went, but the other returned home.

And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say, "Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit." Now he thought: "Oh, they are ghosts." He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot.

So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: "Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick."

He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried.

He was dead.
Bartlett (1932)
Effort after meaning
Remembered story shorter, more cohgerent and fit with participant's own viewpoint
Schema
A structured long-term representation that can be used to make sense of the story / reduce the amount of detail required to be remembered
Schema's can nest and form complex networks of semantic information
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxWuccgUFyQ
Semantic Memory
Collins and Quillian, 1969
A canary is yellow
A canary can fly

'A canary is yellow' recognised faster
Rosch (1973)
Birds
eat worms
I hear a
bird
singing
I watched a
bird
fly over the house
The
bird
was perching on the twig
penguin, ostrich, eagle, robin
Heirarchical categories are
limiting/ problematic
Collins & Loftus, 1975: Spreading Activation
Based on association, rather than rigid
categorisation
Schacter et al (1996)
DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger, McDermott)
Nurse, Sick, Hospital, Patient
'Doctor' causes very similar activation both when and when not incorrectly recalled by participants
Brewer & Treyens (1981)
35 seconds waiting in a room like this
Tested for memory of objects in room (recognition memory test)
Several items in room: some schema consistent, some not
Schema consistent items remembered better
Foils that were incorrectly 'recognised' nearly all schema-consistent.
'There is no known method of readily encoding information into an adult's semantic memory without putting corresponding information into episodic memory, or vice versa' (Wheeler et al, 1997, p333.)
Episodic memory involves subjective experience of recollecting past events ('mental time travel'.
Semantic memory does not.
Prefrontal cortex is much more involved in episodic than semantic memory
Amnesia
Amnesic patients: Preserved language skills, vocabulary, grammar, preserved intelligence test performance - Semantic memory preserved?
But - all could be learnt before the onset of amnesia
Amnesia - may make it hard to establish new episodic or semantic memories
Knowlton and Squire (1995): Remember/Know: Amnesics impaired at both semantic and episodic recall.
Some evidence that there are patients with poor episodic memory but preserved semantic memory. Episodic memory recruits a broader hippocampal and parahippocampal network than semantic? A Single dissociation: Vargha-Khadem et al, 1997.
Rake - Plunder
Trundle - Lollipop
Bitter - Lunacy
Fiddle - Ruler
Bitter ________________
Fiddle ________________
Trundle ________________
Rake__________________
Lollipop
Smoothie
Birdcage
Car
Ruler
Clarion
Plunder
Lunacy
________________
________________
________________
________________
Free Recall
Cued Recall
Recognition
Baddeley, A. Eysenck, M.W., Anderson, C. 'Memory'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 1, 5, 6 and 11
Eysenck, M.W., Keane, M. 'Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 6 & 7.
Reading & References
Background
Poorly Encoded
Failure of retrieval caused by incompatible encoding
Outcome: Forgetting
Preparation Work
For Next Week (Lecture)
Read Baddeley Papers:
Baddeley, A.D., Allen, R.J., & Hitch, G.J. (2011). Binding in visual working memory: The role of the episodic buffer. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1393-1400
Baddeley, A.D. (2000) The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 4, 11, 417-423.
Lecture 1
Short Term and Working Memory
Memory Span
Short Term Memory
Effortful storage of information over brief durations (seconds, not minutes or hours)
Storage of random, unrelated information (often)

Remembering things over hours or days often thought of as 'short term memory', but actually, to psychologists, this represents LTM
STM: 'The key process of storing small amounts of information over a brief interval' (Baddeley, 2009, p20)
'Chunking'
Adrian M. Owen: http://web.me.com/adrian.owen/site/Home.html
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information[1]

George A. Miller (1956)
Harvard University

First published in Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Miller/
Characteristics of STM
Phonological Similarity
Conrad & Hull, 1964
C V D P G T
K R X L Y F
Phonological coding in STM
Input Modality either verbal or visual (see e.g. Baddeley, Thomson & Buchanan, 1975)
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory?
Rapid fading of STM memory trace
Postman & Phillips, 1965
Primacy
Recency
No recency
Segregation of LTM & STM
Articulatory Supression
Neuropsychology
Patient HM (Milner, 1966)
Classic Amnesia
Preserved digit span (STM) but impaired LTM
More similar patients (Baddeley and Warrington, 1970)
Patient KF (Shallice & Warrington, 1970)
Impaired STM (Verbal) but preserved LTM
More similar patients (Vallar & Shallice, 1990; PV - Basso et al, 1982: Vallar & Baddeley, 1987)
The...
The...
The...
Baddeley, 1966
Articulatory supression (Levy, 1971; Baddeley at al, 1975)
Impairs verbal memory by preventing subvocal rehearsal
Word Length Effect
Memory span higher for short words than long words
Suggests a time limited rather than word-limited system
Languages (Welsh, Italian, Chinese: eg. Ellis and Hennelley, 1980)
Serial Order
Visuo-Spatial STM
Segregation of Spatial and Visual WM
Logie & Marchetti (1991), Hecker and Mapperson (1997), Tresch, Sinnamon and Seamon (1993), Klauer and Zhao (2004), Darling, Della Sala & Logie (2009)
Digit span tasks, crucially require memory for SERIAL ORDER
Serial order memory seems to be a characteristic feature of STM
Not clear how serial order works
Various theories, 'chaining' supported less well
Irrelevant Sound effect
Irrelevant sounds impair immediate serial memory BUT
Only if they are speech like
Foreign language YES, Unpatterned ('white') noise NO (Colle and Welsh, 1976)
Nonsense syllables YES (Salame & Baddeley, 1982)
Music YES - Vocal music more than instrumental (Salame & Baddeley, 1989)
Changing tones - YES: Changing state hypothesis: Jones, Macken, Murray, 1993)
Primacy Model (Page and Norris, 1998)
Links to first and last items (Henson, 1998)
Ongoing context model (Burgess & Hitch, 1999, 2006)
Page & Norris (2003)
Serial order mechanism separate from mechanism storing items - hence irrelevant sound has no effect on serial order memory, even if irrelevant sounds are similar to the TBR (to-be-remembered) material.
Remember WHERE


Remember WHAT
Spatial STM (Posner & Konick, 1966)
Visual STM / 'Object' STM
(Vogel, Woodman, Luck, 2001)
4 item capacity of object memory
Corsi Blocks Task (Corsi, 1972/Milner 1971)
Visual Patterns Task (Della Sala, Gray, Baddeley, Allamano & Wilson, 1999)
See Goldman-Rakic (1995) Ann NY Acad Sci or (1996) Phil Trans RS London
Introducing Working Memory
The trouble with the Modal Model
Level of Processing
Serial Processes to LTM
Independence of cognitive processing and verbal memory
Working Memory - A Solution
Egg and Box
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Meaningfulness of a stimulus, hence memory, dictated by amount of processing carried out on it
Modal model (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968): access to LTM by length of time in STM: rehearsal is the mechanism involved in transfer to LTM
INCOMPATIBLE with LOP
Incompatible with: Patient KF / Patient HM double dissociation
New learning (of any sort) should be impossible in patients with impaired STM
Reasoning, comprehension and other complex activities should be impaired in patients with STM deficits
This is not the case (See, e.g. Vallar & Shallice, 1990)
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Greater memory load does not impact performance of a processing task (verbal reasoning)
Cannot be accounted for by a single, unitary STM+Processing system
Phonological Loop
Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad
Central Executive
Alan Baddeley (and many others) at the GoCognitive YouTube channel
Preparation Work
For next week
Read:
Baddeley, A.D., Allen, R.J., & Hitch, G.J. (2011). Binding in visual working memory: The role of the episodic buffer. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1393-1400
Baddeley, A.D. (2000) The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 4, 11, 417-423.
Read: Cowan, N. (2010). The magical mystery four: How is working memory capacity limited, and why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 51-57. Download from http://web.missouri.edu/~cowann/pubs.html
Read: Engle, R. W. (2010) The role of working memory capacity in cognitive control. Current Anthropology, 51, No. S1, Working Memory: Beyond Language and Symbolism, S17-S26.
Baddeley, A. Eysenck, M.W., Anderson, C. 'Memory'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 2 and 3
Eysenck, M.W., Keane, M. 'Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook'. Hove, Psychology Press. Chapters 6, 7 & 8.
Reading & References
Why does there need to be a distinction?
Full transcript