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PSYA1 Revision

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by

Dylan Brown

on 4 May 2016

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Transcript of PSYA1 Revision

Memory
Paper 1
Notes
Important
Details
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
(cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
What parts make Paper 1?
Memory
Attachment
Social influence
There will also be research methods questions throughout the paper
You must be able to show the DEPTH of your knowledge - Explain your answers in detail!
Time is tight! Its a mark a minute!
Encoding

Process of transforming a sensory input for it to be registered in memory

Capacity

How much information each store can hold

Duration

How long each store can hold information for
Loftus and Palmer (1974) Study aimed to investigate the influence the wording of the question has on participants estimates of speed.
Lab experiment – 45 Participants shown short clip of a series of traffic accidents.
Asked ‘How fast were the cars going when they _______________ into one another?’ Words – Smashed, hit, bumped, collided, contacted.
Findings – participants not good at estimating speeds, the speed estimate varied depending on the verb used. Verb Mean speed estimate
Smashed 40.8
Collided 39.3
Bumped 38.1
Hit 34.0
Contacted 31.8
Evaluation – follow up study found 32% of Ps who had heard the word ‘smashed’ reported seeing broken glass on the road (there was none) but only 14% of those who heard ‘hit’ reported seeing the glass. Supports misleading questions can have effect on EWT

Cute dogs order pizza!

- Context
- Detail
- Order
- Perspective
Working memory model....
Sensory / Short Term / Long Term
Anxiety
- Loftus Weapon focus study
- Yerkes-Dodson Law
Misleading information
- Leading questions
- Post event discussion
Explanations of forgetting
Loftus and Palmer
Leading Questions
The exam is Monday 16th May
(PM)

Don't forget to bring a
calculator! You WILL NOT be
allowed to use your phone!

Stages of attachment
Schaffer & Emerson
Procrastination...
Exam
Read the question!
Be sure to answer the question set and not what you think the question says!
Look at the marks!
6 mark questions should encourage you to write at least half a side. 12 marks should be at least a side.
Time!
You need to keep in mind the fact that you only have an hour and a half! That means you need to be looking at getting about a mark a minute. This gives you some reading time at the start and the end!
Exam results will be published in August 2017!
Memory
Age and EWT - children
Dent (1988) – children usually provide fewer details when asked to recall events without prompting. Also perform worse than adults when asked specific questions.
King & Yuille (1987) – if the child is interested in the topic, their accuracy will match that of an adult.
Loftus and Palmer (1974) Study aimed to investigate the influence the wording of the question has on participants estimates of speed.
Lab experiment – 45 Participants shown short clip of a series of traffic accidents.
Asked ‘How fast were the cars going when they _______________ into one another?’ Words – Smashed, hit, bumped, collided, contacted.
Findings – participants not good at estimating speeds, the speed estimate varied depending on the verb used. Verb Mean speed estimate
Smashed 40.8
Collided 39.3
Bumped 38.1
Hit 34.0
Contacted 31.8
Evaluation – follow up study found 32% of Ps who had heard the word ‘smashed’ reported seeing broken glass on the road (there was none) but only 14% of those who heard ‘hit’ reported seeing the glass. Supports misleading questions can have effect on EWT
The Cognitive Interview
Change of narrative order
: try to recount the scene in a different chronological order
Change of perspective
: try to recount the scene from a different perspective
Mental reinstatement of context
: try to return to the environment and emotional context of the event
Report everything
: recall the maximum amount of information, even if perceived as low relevance
Deffenbacher (1983)
Deffenbacher was one of the first to investigate the possible link between stress and EWT. In a review of 21 studies, he hypothesised that the anxiety-performance relationship follows the inverted-U function proposed by the Yerkes-Dodson law (1908) – that is for tasks of moderate complexity (such as EWT), performance improves with increases of anxiety up to an optimal point where it starts to decline. (The weapon focus study works just as well!)
ANXIETY!
AGE!
Loftus and Palmer
Leading Questions
Hi this is too big!
Developmental Psychology...
Attachment
Explanations of attachment
The Learning Theory
Attachment is LEARNT
Classical and operant conditioning
Food is crucial for attachment
Bowlby's Monotropic Theory
* Attachment is innate
* Sensitive period
* Monotropy & heirarchy
* Continuity hypothesis
* Internal working model
* Social releasers
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
Individual differences in attachment
Types of attachment
Secure
Insecure avoidant
Insecure resistant
Disorganised (Ainsworth missed this)
Cross cultural variations in attachment
Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg
Takahashi
Grossman & Grossman
Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation
Institutionalisation
Rutter
Hodges & Tizard

Practice Papers & Past Papers ...

There really is nothing better!
Eyewitness Testimony
Social Influence
Types:
- Internalisation
- Identification
- Compliance

Explanations:
- Normative social influence
- Informational social influence
Types and explanations of conformity
Majority influence

Factors affecting conformity:
- Unanimity
- Group size
- Task difficulty
Asch
Zimbardo
Conforming to social roles
Explanations for obedience:
- Agentic state
- Legitimacy of authority
- Authoritarian personality (A dispositional explanation)

Situational variables affecting obedience:
- Proximity
- Location
- Uniform
Milgram: Obedience
Also known as 'independent behaviour' (not conformity or obeying)
Resisting social influence
- Social support (Allies)
- Locus of control (High internals)
Minority influence
Moscovici: Green & blue slide study

Minorities must be:
- Consistent
- Flexible
- Committed
Social change
Often occurs as a result of minority influence e.g. Suffragettes
Stages of social change:

1. Draw attention to the cause
2. Create cognitive conflict
3. Consistency
4. Augmentation principle (Suffering)
5. Snowball effect
6. Social cryptoamnesia
Features of each store:
- Proactive interference (Can't learn new info)
- Retroactive interference (New replaces old)
- Retrieval failure due to absence of cues
Factors affecting accuracy of EWT
The Cognitive Interview
Infant caregiver interactions
Reciprocity
Interactional synchrony
1. Indiscriminate attachments (0-2 months)
2. Beginnings of attachment (4-7 months)
3. Discriminate attachment (7-11 months) - Strong attachment formed here
4. Multiple attachments (After 9 months)
The role of the father
Dads tend to be secondary attachments
More playful
Do 'backstage' tasks
Set expectations
Impact more noticable in teenage years
Lorenz
Harlow

Animal studies of attachment
Bowlby - 44 Thieves Study
'Affectionless psychopaths'
Romanian orphan studies
Influence of early attachment
The role of an internal working model

Hazan & Shaver - Love quiz
Full transcript