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Commerce and Culture in Post-Classical Era WHAP
Transcript of Commerce and Culture in Post-Classical Era WHAP
though inner/outer zones of Eurasia.
Outer: warm, watered (CH/IN/ME/MED) most of the classical empires were here. Wonder why... East/West Axis!
Inner: harsh, drier (RU/C. Asia)
Trade is more lucrative when imperial states offer protection.
Examples: Rome and Han China. Belt of Abbasid, Tang, and Byzantine. And of course, the Mongols... but you'll have to wait a little while longer.
Silk Roads Transit
Goods: mostly luxury goods (using camels) b/c price of trade. Silk will symbolize this trade. It was a symbol of high status, even used as currency in CH. Kept silk worms VERY safe... ish.
In comparison w/ Indian Ocean trade, Silk Roads trade was small... but significant in terms of CH peasant production (silk, paper, porcelain).
Sea Roads: indian Ocean Commerce
Super important. Trade was much cheaper, larger, and states stayed out (which, if you think about it, is kind of incredible).
used MONSOON winds to trade back and forth.
Traded mostly bulk items (not luxury) like textiles, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, and wheat).
Initial trade started LONG time ago, but picked up w/ Roman trade with India. Will pick up even more w/ revival of CH after fall of Han, and rise of Islamic kingdoms.
Change along the Indian ocean
SE Asia: between CH and IND, led to rise of trade w/ Malay sailors using the Straits of Malacca (remember this for later w/ Islam).
Srivijaya dominated this trade until 1025, putting taxes on ships to create a political state.
Rice producing nations (champa) join the network.
Led to diffusion: Indian alphabets spread, especially religion (Hinduism and BUDDHISM).
Java influenced by Buddhism, Angkor Wat influenced by Hinduism. All without force/war.
E. Africa: Swahili City-States are MAJOR. = a blend of Bantu and Islam. Developed out of desirable trading goods (ivory, GOLD, quartz, animal skin, iron, etc.). Merchant class substantial.
Swahili city-states developed 1000-1500, took goods from African interior to trade for Asian goods. Most converted to Islam. Trade with interior led to Great Zimbabwe.
Sand Roads: Trans-Saharan Routes
Gold-Salt Trade! Intro of camel = turning point. Where did the domesticated camel come from? (JT song)
Merchants wanted West African gold (and ivory and slaves), thus the Sahara became an international trade route for CARAVANS! Like 5000 camels at once.
This led to creation of Post-Classical African states of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. Monarchies and reputation for wealth.
Merchants also traded slaves, who were mostly women at first, and mostly from raids on societies to the south.
Harty, AP World History
Commerce and Culture
Cultures: WAY more important.
Buddhism: spread along silk roads, appealed to merchants, and many cities became centers for commerce. As Buddhism spread east, changed (Mahayana).
Fun fact: Buddhist monasteries were the first real banking houses.
Diseases: Exposure to diseases due to long-distance trade.
Examples: Smallpox and Measles in the Roman and Han Empires. Bubonic plague junior hit Mediterranean in 7th cent. Black Death spread to Europe via Mongols.
Black Death may not have been Bubonic (though that is the accepted thought). Killed up to 1/2 Euro population, also in China and Islamic World. It even undermined Mongol power.
Not a ton of trade due to lack of domesticated animals... wait, oh don't do it... North/South Axis strikes again!... oh my gah.
Tons of local and regional trade... not a ton of long-distance trade (direct opposition to long-distance trade in Afro-Eurasia).
This also means cultures didn't spread as quickly.
Mesoamerica had a trade network. Chaco Canyon (remember Pueblos) traded w/ Mesoamerica. Maya traded w/ Teotihuacan and coastal people (using canoes). Eventually Aztecs will even have profesh merchants (much later, at the end of this time period).
Andean trade routes run by government.
: distributed supplies though state-run storehouses, and a public road system (around 20,000 miles).