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Scientific, Cultural and technological trends of the 21st Ce

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Nujood Najed

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Transcript of Scientific, Cultural and technological trends of the 21st Ce

Scientific, Cultural and technological trends of the 21st Century
Nujood Najed
Latifa Al Suwaidi

Nuclear, Electronic and Computer Technology Revolution
Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
Interconnections between space exploration and developments since the 1950s in scientific research
Implications of Nuclear, Electronic and Computer Technology
The concept of the atom existed for many centuries
ago. After World War II had ended, scientists focused on peaceful applications of nuclear technology.

Worldwide Implications

Political Impacts - By creating Super power countries such as USA , USSR and France.

Economic Impacts - Utilization of Peaceful Nuclear energy increased because it results in Low cost of electricity generation. Generating electricity for nuclear reactors is cheaper than generating electricity from fossil fuel.

Radioactive waste Impact - Harmful to the environment and human lives.

Nuclear Power Plant accidents

Nuclear

Electronic

Electronic technology increases the cultural ties between countries worldwide.


Worldwide Implications

Economic Impacts - Increase in the standard of living.

Increase communication abilities

Smart Phone Revolution



Computer
Today, it is hard to visualize the world without it. The world became one Global Village due to computer technology.

Worldwide Implications

It is established in all public and service facilities such as schools, banks, corporations.

Dramatic change in human interaction.

Unemployment - as computers can perform a duty that might need up to 7 workers.
The Space Race between the US and the USSR emerged with scientific research that resulted in innovation and competition in space exploration.
The key to explore space is to have advanced scientific research and remarkable technical innovation.
Space exploration and agricultural productivity
Technological innovations from space exploration will help agriculture create a better understanding of global water supplies while helping producers determine threats to plant health sooner
“I envision these capabilities from the technology we’re developing for space exploration would be available for use in agriculture in the next five to 10 years,” Elachi predicted.
Space exploration and consumer culture
Space research encouraged citizens to participate in the development of technology.
Today’s trainers have either an air pillow or a foam-like sole. This technology originates from Neil Armstrong’s moon boots.
Long Distance Phone Calls

The satellite phone was a NASA spinoff. The technology was developed on the basis of satellites that connect Earth and spacecraft. Today, around 200 communication satellites orbit the Earth. The satellites make it possible to place calls from New York to London or Nairobi.
Space Exploration and intelligence gathering
Social and cultural Implications of recent medical successes
The Development of Antibiotics has been very effective in stopping the growth of bacteria or killing the bacteria. However, taking antibiotics when they are not necessary will contribute to a problem called the Antibiotic resistance. This led to the evolution of many bacterial strains that no longer respond to treatment with common antibiotics
Vaccines have dramatically reduced diseases, deaths and disabilities
The Changing Structure and organization of scientific and technological research
The Organizational Structure of a firm's Research and Development can have a huge impact on its innovations
Organizational Structure
Centralization
Decentralization
Centralization
Centralized R&D will generate innovations that have a larger impact on future technological developments within and outside the firm, as well as a wider impact across technological domains.
Decentralization
Decentralized R&D ties research effort directly to specific product-markets and incurs greater transaction costs of inter divisional coordination, produces innovation that has less overall impact, and that influences a narrower range of technological domains.
Government and Corporation role in R&D
University Roles in R&D process
Research universities in low- and middle-income countries have crucial roles to play in developing differentiated and effective academic systems, and in making it possible for their countries to join the global knowledge society and compete in sophisticated knowledge economies
Role of International Agencies
These agencies are mandated to strengthen sectors such as the industry, agriculture and health. These agencies also play an important role in assisting countries to apply internationally-agreed rules and regulations, and quality standards.
Influence of Electronic communication on Culture
Internet Impact on Politics
Social websites have played an important role in many elections around the world, including in the U.S., Iran, and India. They have also served to rally people for a cause, and have inspired mass movements and political unrests in many countries.

Cultural Diffusion
The ease of connecting through technology and communicating online does have an impact on culture locally and globally as more and more cultural backgrounds and ideas are spread worldwide.
Cultural Creation
Social networks offer the opportunity for people to re-connect with their old friends and acquaintances, make new friends, trade ideas, share content and pictures, and many other activities.

Electronic Communication
Electronic communication and International Marketing
Developing technology and changing the marketing communication created a new market place for consumers. They can enjoy shopping through internet which saves their time.In fact, Internet and related new technology has changed the face of marketing communications.Much like the inception of radio and television affected business communications several years ago, the Internet is recreating the environmental site of business.
Culture Globalization
In the late 20th Century, the world started to approach global culture. Cultures began to resemble one another and culture diffusion is increasing.

Social forces that influence global culture include electronic communication such as telephones, TVS, emails, radios, etc.
Art, literature and traditional customs
Art preserves how it felt to exist in a particular place at a particular time. In this case , Art is communication, it allows people from different cultures and different times to communicate with each other via images, sounds and stories.
Literature
Literature is the base of society. The authors' work reflects the events that occurred during that time.
Traditional Customs
Traditional Customs helps maintain the identity and shapes the culture. In traditional cultures, citizens share common beliefs and goals which creates a strong and connected community.
President Dwight Eisenhower created a national security- oriented space program led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Air Force and a new organization called the National Reconnaissance Office (the existence of which was kept classified until the early 1990s) was code-named Corona; it would use orbiting satellites to gather intelligence on the Soviet Union and its allies.
"People see [vac­ci­na­tion deci­sions] based on their per­sonal his­to­ries, cul­tural his­to­ries, their expe­ri­ences in the health­care system,” said Maria Todorova, the interim director of the Mas­ters in Public Health Pro­gram in the Bouvé Col­lege of Health Sci­ences.

“A new vac­cine becomes a mirror to society and psychology. It’s amazing what people project onto a few drops of a vac­cine. It’s only a few drops of liquid in a syringe, but it is loaded with meaning.”
1986

In Ukraine, at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, an explosion and fire released huge quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere. This possesed as a threat to the environment and is dangerous for humans. Between 15,000 and 30,000 people lost their lives and were struggling with health issues.
Mykola Malyshev, 66, was working in the control room of Chernobyl’s Reactor No. 1 at the time of the explosion. He said the lights flickered and the room shook. The workers were ordered to the destroyed reactor, but when they got there, their co-workers ordered them to flee and save themselves. “They told us, ‘We are already dead. Go away,”’ Malyshev recalled at the Kiev ceremony.
2011

In Japan, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was caused by a nuclear meltdown of three of the plant's six nuclear reactors. This occured when the plant was hit by a tsunami, which was triggered by the Tohoku earthquake. The following day , a huge amount of radioactive material was released.
Masao Yoshida, the manager of the Fukushima plant at the time of the incident, describing how the workers had gone to the still-functioning Fukushima No. 2 power plant, 10 km. away. “Actually, I never told them to withdraw to 2F,” the newspaper quoted Yoshida as saying. “When I was told they had gone to 2F, it was already too late.”
The Role of Government in the R&D process plays an important role in providing funding for public R&D programs as part of their industrial policies or science and technology development strategy
Role of Government
Table Of Contents
Nuclear technology
Electronic Technology
Computer technology
Space exploration
Medical successes
Research and Development
Electronic communication
Global Culture
Art , Literature and Traditional customs
Bibliography
http://www.nchs.ucla.edu/history-standards/world-history-content-standards/world-history-era-9

http://world-nuclear.org/info/Economic-Aspects/Economics-of-Nuclear-Power/

https://www.oecd-nea.org/brief/brief-09.html

http://www.nardep.info/uploads/Brief16_SocioEconomicNuclearPower.pdf

http://users.ictp.it/~pub_off/lectures/lns020/Majumdar/Majumdar_1.pdf

http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/TE_1622_Web.pdf

http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1476_web.pdf



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