**Grade 11 Physics**

**SPH 3U - Road Map**

**Kinematics**

**Dynamics**

**Electricity & Magnetism**

**Physics**

**What is physics?**

**Why study it in high school?**

April Fools?

"Space is Hard"

Spot the physics...

http://nigelstanford.com/Cymatics/

Taking the magic out of life?

The big and the small

Richard Feynman

The most astounding fact

Neil deGrasse Tyson

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150803-physics-theories-map/

A theory of everything?

The Higgs Boson

Hard Questions

**Unit 1**

**Unit 2**

**Unit 5**

**Waves & Sound**

**Unit 4**

**1.1**

Distance, Position & Displacement

**1.2**

Speed & Velocity

**1.3**

Acceleration

**1.4**

Uniformly Accelerated Motion

**1.5**

Motion in 2

Dimensions

**1.6**

Projectile

Motion

**Describing**

how

things move

how

things move

**Describing**

why

things move

why

things move

B. Scalars and Vectors

C. Describing location

Direction

= Distance

= Displacement

= Position

d

d

Δd

distance and direction from a reference point

change in position of an object

(or Position from Point A)

https://uniformmotion.bandcamp.com/releases

C. Average

Speed

and

Velocity

B. Uniform Motion

Instantaneous Velocity

1. Spot the differences!

2. Units?

You are at school. You decide to walk 500m [E] to the mall and then 1200m [W] home. The trip takes 30 minutes.

a) What is your average

speed

? (in m/s)

b) What is your average

velocity

? (in m/s)

Try it!

A. Velocity

Look familiar?

Position-time graphs

= slope of tangent on position-time graph

31 m/s

2

3.8 m/s

Jaguar XK8 (2001)

0-60 mph 7.0 seconds

2

Up to 41 m/s

2

A. Acceleration

B. Relationships in Motion Graphs

Galileo's Hypothesis

All objects fall with the same acceleration, regardless of mass (in a vacuum)

Myth 1

Myth 2

An object dropped and launched horizontally from the same height will hit the ground at the same time

Myth 3

An object can be launched backward from a moving vehicle so it falls straight down

Mythbusters: Gravity

Assignment:

Make a video to prove one of the above myths using material you can find in the classroom

You will be marked out of 4 in each of the following categories:

Video explains the myth in an a way that is easy to understand (ELI5)

Video demonstrates the physics of the chosen myth

Conclusion from experiment is clear

Group worked well together, all members involved

A. Uniformly Accelerated Motion

B. The "BIG 5" Equations of Motion

C. Gravity

These equations are to be used ONLY with uniformly accelerated motion

1) Constant Speed

2) Constant Direction

The Band!

motion with a constant acceleration

(magnitude + direction)

a special case of uniform acceleration

9.81 m/s

2

at sea level on earth

[9.80678 in Toronto according to Wolfram Alpha]

g=

Acceleration due to gravity

Free fall

when the only force acting on an object is gravity

[down]

->

Myth 4

A penny dropped from the observation deck of the CN tower will kill somebody on the ground if it hits them.

A. Drawing Scale Diagrams

to estimate resultant displacements and velocities

Direction

Scale

Resultants

[E 60˚ N]

when adding vectors, join them tail to tip

the vector from the beginning to the end of the path is called the resultant

include a magnitude AND direction!

choose a scale factor that is reasonable for the paper you are using

scale factor = scale distance/actual distance

to find how long to scale a distance to, multiply the actual distance by the scale factor

directions should always be taken from east or west

B. Adding Vectors Algebraically

(for perpendicular vectors)

C. Adding Vector Components

(for non-perpendicular vectors)

1. Join vectors tip to tail and draw the resultant vector

2. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant with the pythagorean theorem

3. Calculate the direction of the resultant with the arctan function (tan inverse)

1. Break down the given vectors into x and y components

2. Sum the x and y components to determine the resultant vector

3. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant with the pythagorean theorem

4. Calculate the direction of the resultant with the arctan function (tan inverse)

Analyze like a right angle triangle!!

Break it down... into components

Any vector can be broken down into its x and y components using sine and cosine:

In this course, there are 3 main ways to analyze motion in 2 dimensions:

ESTIMATE

ACCURATE (for non-perpendicular vectors)

ACCURATE (for 2 perpendicular vectors only)

we can extend this to any number of non-perpendicular vectors

Remember:

you can add vectors in any order!

**2.2**

Newton's First Law: Inertia

A. How to fix a hammer...

What is the best way to fix a hammer with a loose head?

B. Inertia

D. Moment of Inertia

C. Newton's First Law of Motion

Things like to keep doin' what they're doin'!

An object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force

An object moving at a constant velocity will stay moving at that velocity unless acted upon by an external force

http://www.wired.com/2015/09/simple-physics-project-thatll-show-inertia-works/

an object's resistance to changes in motion

or how badly an object wants to stay still or keep moving

directly related to an object's

mass

What happens on the subway if you aren't holding on to anything when it stops?

What do you feel when you go around a corner in a car?

What happens when you quickly yank a tablecloth out from under a fully set table?

an object's resistance to rotation

What can you do to increase or decrease your moment of inertia?

How do cats flip over when dropped?

F

net

= sum of all forces acting on an object

We can check if the object is experiencing an external force by checking if the net force acting on the object is 0.

**2.3**

Newton's Second Law: F=ma

A. Newton's Second Law

An object with a net force will accelerate in the direction of the force in proportion to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

OR...

F = ma

net

net force

mass

acceleration

B. Newton's Second Law and Acceleration Due to Gravity

Remember our equation for the force of gravity?

Check it out! It comes from Newton's second law when acceleration is replaced with 'g' or acceleration due to gravity.

F = ma

net

F = mg

g

If the force of gravity acting on heavy objects is larger, then why don't they accelerate faster according to F=ma??

**2.4**

Newton's Third Law: Action-Reaction

A. Newton's Third Law of Motion

For every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force

B. Action-Reaction Pairs

You are sitting in a sailboat in the middle of the ocean. There is no wind. If you blow on the sail will you go forward?

Strong Nuclear Force

Weak Nuclear Force

Gravity

Electromagnetism

What is a force?

The Four Fundamental Forces

**2.1**

Forces

A. Free Body Diagrams

B. Measuring Forces

1 N = 1 kg•m/s

2

keeps quarks together in protons and neutrons and creates the shape of atomic nuclei

responsible for radioactive decay (protons become neutrons and vice versa)

attractive force between everything with mass. dominates on the large scale

electrostatic and magnetism forces (which are two sides of the same coin)

the study of

why things move

Complicated version of what

touch

is:

So which of the fundamental forces are responsible for the regular push and pull forces??

System Diagram

-sketch of a situation

Free Body Diagram (FBD)

-object is isolated

-only forces are shown

This is just a simplified FBD where the person has been simplified as a point!

C. Net Force

the vector sum of all forces acting on an object

F

net

If an object is at rest, the net force acting on the object must be equal to 0.

F = 0

net

The Newton

The Force of Gravity

F = mg

g

**F**

air

**F**

f

**F**

g

**F**

N

**F**

app

**2.5**

The Force of Gravity

Uniform Motion

Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Motion in 1 Dimension

Motion in 2 Dimensions

constant speed

constant direction

constant change in speed

constant direction

2 Main Types of Motion

(for this course)

forces are measured in Newtons

In a frictionless world, the third ball would go on forever because of its

inertia

Galileo

1600's

Principia (1687) formalizes the works of Galileo and others before him.

"If I have seen farther it is by standing on the shoulders of giants."

Newton

1687

**2.7**

A Theory of Everything

If I have a mass of 75 kg

a) What is the force of gravity I exert on the ground?

b) What is the normal force?

c) Draw a FBD

Example:

IMPULSE

A bit of a summary:

**FBD**

note: this ground shouldn't be here for a proper FBD

Major League baseballs have an average mass of 5.125 ounces, and a 90-mph fastball can leave the bat at 110 mph. Extrapolating Newton's second law of motion, Russell determined that, in a collision lasting less than one-thousandth of a second, the average pro swing imparts 4145 pounds of force to the ball. Peak forces exceed 8300 pounds -- enough to stop a Mini Cooper, rolling at 10 mph, in its tracks.

note:

1 lb = 4.45 N

1 mi/h = 0.447 m/s

1 oz = 28.3 g

http://www.popularmechanics.com/adventure/sports/a4569/4216783/

Baseball Physics

Slow-mo weirdness

The Bricklayer's Lament

http://www.wired.com/2015/11/ballistic-pendulums-are-as-awesome-as-they-sound/?mbid=social_twitter

http://nautil.us/issue/29/scaling/will-quantum-mechanics-swallow-relativity

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150803-physics-theories-map/

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

How is gravity proportional to mass? distance?

Calculate the gravitational field strength (g) for the surface of earth

What is the difference between

mass

and

weight

?

Around 1600 AD

Johannes Kepler

B. What is gravity?

Some gravity questions...

**2.6**

Friction

A. Coefficients of Friction

μ

K

μ

S

coefficient of kinetic friction

coefficient of static friction

force that resists objects sliding against each other

Car tires...

Static or kinetic friction?

**values can be found on page 170

F

K

F

N

___

=

F

S

F

N

___

=

Increasing Friction

Decreasing Friction

Ball bearings...

How do they work?

What are some other ways to decrease friction?

Which tire would provide the car with the most friction?

Why do tires have treads? (or grooves)

What's the deal with F1 tires?

B. Engineering Friction

But why? Why is friction for objects that are stopped different from objects that are stationary?

A. Newton got it wrong?

B. Classical and Modern Physics

C. A Theory of Everything?

Will Physics explain everything???

What did Newton get wrong?

Is what Newton discovered still useful?

Relativity and Quantm Mechanics

Uniting the 4 forces?

**Energy**

**Unit 3**

Gravitational

Sound

Kinetic

Electrical

Chemical

Mechanical

Nuclear

Thermal

Elastic

Radiant

potential energy

potential energy

energy

energy

energy

energy

potential energy

energy

energy

energy

**3.3**

**3.4**

**3.5**

**3.6**

3.1 Work

work is a force applied to an object over a distance

Why 'potential'?

What is an elastic object?

What is a spring?

3.2 Energy

Energy Transformations

energy is the capacity do do work

anything that can apply a force over a distance contains energy

lets explore the different types of energy we'll be working with...

the energy of moving objects

examples: a person running, a crash cart moving at a constant velocity, a particle being accelerated by the LHC

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be changed from one form into another

The total amount of energy in the universe is conserved (stays the same)

B. The Law of Conservation of Energy

potential energy stored as a result of an elastic object being stretched or compressed

examples

: pulling a rubber band, jumping on a trampoline, stretching or compressing a spring

the energy held by an object in relation to a mass's gravitational field

examples: lifting an object, moon (with respect to earth), comet, planets

total amount of kinetic and potential energy that the atoms or molecules in a substance has

examples: sun, stove, fire, rubbing hands together

the energy from electromagnetic waves that travel through space

examples: solar energy, light bulbs, phone screens, UV rays

energy released during fission or fusion, found in the core of an atom

examples: nuclear power plant, core of the sun, nuclear bomb

energy absorbed or relased in a chemical reaction

examples: leaves in sunshine, gas before ignited, wood before it burns, explosions

Conclusions from spring lab:

1) How does the work put into the spring by the masses compare to the energy gained by the spring?

2) Why is a force-displacement graph useful?

3) When can we not simply use W=Fd to calculate work?

energy due to an object's motion (kinetic) or position (potential) energy

sum of kinetic and gravitational potential energy together

examples: wrecking ball, bowling ball with pins, flying aircraft

3.7 Power

3.8 Efficiency

**3.9**

**3.10**

Which do you have a better chance of surviving?

1) Crashing into a brick wall at 100 km/h or

2) Two cars crashing into each other. Both cars are moving at 50 km/h toward the other

Which ball will be going faster when it reaches the bottom?

Different paths to the bottom...

Conclusions?

The rate at which work is done

Units:

1 J/s = 1 W

The Watt

make sure your units are in joules and seconds to end up with Watts

1000 W = 1kW

Remember...

Another unit for energy: the kWh

When dealing with electricity, we often refer to energy in terms of kWh (kilowatt hours) instead of Joules

when calculating kWh make sure your units are kW and h!

What is the conversion between MJ and kWh?

What is considered 'useful energy output' in each of these cases. What is not useful?

25-30%

1.5-2.5%

7-10%

useful energy output

energy input

Energy is always conserved, but then why doesn't a bouncy ball bounce to the same height when dropped?

Draw the energy transformations!

Power Generation

The Mix

Ontario's Current Energy Mix

http://www.ieso.ca/Pages/Power-Data/Supply.aspx

1) What energy transformations are involved in each type of electricity production?

2) What are some other ways we get energy besides the generation of electricity?

3) Renewable vs. Non-Renewable: What are they and why is non-renewable so popular?

EROI

Energy Return on Investment

A. Thermal energy, heat and temperature

What do you feel?

Heat, temperature or thermal energy?

What's going on??

1) Thermal Energy

2) Heat

3) Temperature

total kinetic and potential energy of the particles in a substance

the

transfer

of thermal energy from one substance to another

transfer is always from warmer to colder

measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance

How cold can it get?

How hot can it get?

B. Heat Transfer

1) Conduction

2) Convection

3) Radiation

There are 3 main ways thermal energy can be transferred between substances:

transfer of heat through contact of molecules

transfer of heat by circulating fluid particles

transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves

Absolute Zero = -273.15˚C

C. States of Matter

Do we glow?

http://www.livescience.com/7799-strange-humans-glow-visible-light.html

A. Mass-Energy Equivalence

Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy

Mass can transform into energy and energy into mass such that the total mass-energy in an isolated system remains constant.

or...

where c is the speed of light (3.0(10^8)m/s)

1) If you converted 1kg of mass to energy, how much energy would be produced?

2) How long would a 40W light bulb last on that amount of energy?

B. Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fusion

decomposition of large unstable nuclei into smaller more stable nuclei

nuclear reactors operate on chain reactions

why is uranium used?

fusing of nuclei of two atoms to make a larger nucleus

why is fusion so hard??

C. Radioactive Decay

4.1 What is Sound?

4.2 Describing Waves

4.3 Wave Interference

https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/wave-on-a-string

Interactive Wave Simulation

4.7 How do we hear?

http://audacityteam.org/

Audacity

http://www.spacex.com/falcon9

Electricity

**5.1**

What is it?

Current Electricity

Static Electricity

Electric Potential Difference (V)

Current Electricity

**5.2**

Ohm's Law

**5.3**

Moving Charges

Charges at Rest

http://skullsinthestars.com/2012/11/26/more-on-franklin-and-the-electrical-kite-1752/

Benjamin Franklin

lightng is electricity?

gave us the lightning rod

Alessandro Volta

produce current electricity

voltaic cells

Charles-Augustin de Coulomb

interaction between charged particles

Andre-Marie Ampere

Energy per unit charge (V=E/Q)

Units:

Volts (V)

1 Volt = 1 J/C

Measured with a Voltmeter

Charge (Q)

Units:

Coulomb (C)

1 Coulomb = the charge of 6.242×10^18 electrons (-) or protons (+)

Like charges repel, opposite charges attract

Electricity is...

a force caused by electric charge

electric charges are due to electrons and protons

What is more dangerous, amps or volts?

How fast do electrons typically move along in a wire?

The flow of electrons, I = Q/t

Unit:

Amperes (A) or Amps

1 Amp = 1 Coulomb/second

Measured with an ammeter

We consider conventional current flow to be positive (not electron flow)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of AC and DC?

Current (I)

AC & DC

Circuits

**5.5**

Series Circuits

Parallel Circuits

Kirchhoff's Laws

Electromagnetism

**5.6**

build up of charges in a material

when there is enough potential difference, there is a static discharge (current)

Charges move (flow) in a wire or other material

E=QV

E=mgh

To get water to move, you need to have a height difference.

This gives it gravitational potental energy.

To get charges to move, you need to have a _____________.

This gives it electrical energy.

How do we get charges moving?

A measure of how difficult it is for electricity to flow through a material

Unit: Ohms

Measured with an ohmmeter

Resistance causes energy to be lost, usually in the form of heat

Resistance (R)

You can plot the values to determine the relationship between potential difference and current

Do all materials follow Ohm's Law?

A. Ohm's Law

The ratio of electrical potential difference across a resistor to the current is constant

The value of the constant ratio is the resistance

If a toaster produces 12 ohms of resistance in a 120 V circuit, what is the amount of current in the circuit?

Example:

2 main types of electrical circuit:

One path for the current

If one bulb goes out, they both go out

Multiple paths for the current

If one bulb goes out, the other stays lit

How can we calculate the resistance when there is more than 1 resistor in a circuit?

1. Kirchhoff's Current Rule:

The total current into a junction must be equal to the current out of a junction

2. Kirchhoff's Voltage Rule:

The total sum of the potential rises must equal the sum of the potential drops in a circuit

B. Total Resistance

A. Types of Circuit

Complex Circuits

Elements of both types of circuits

reduce each portion of the circuit one at a time

use Ohm's law with Kirchhoff's laws to analyze

Analyzing Complex Circuits

Electrical Power

**5.4**

Remember, power is defined as the amount of energy used or transformed per unit time.

Electrical Power

is the rate that electrical energy is used or transformed.

We can combine our definitions of current, electrical potential and Ohm's Law to derive 3 equations for electrical power

Recall:

we can rearrange P=E/t into E = P x t

if we input power as kW and time as hours, we can calculate energy in terms of kWh

a rough estimate of the cost of electricity is 10 cents/kWh

How many lightbulbs?

Kilowatt-Hours

A. Position

Activity: analyzing position with Algodoo

position is a way to describe the location of an object from a reference point

it is a vector quantity

position-time graphs are used to describe how an object's position changes over time

d

at reference point

to the east of reference point

to the west of reference point

moving away (east) from reference point with constant speed

moving towards (west) reference point with constant speed

increasing speed

decreasing speed

path along which an object travels

Δd = d - d

f

i

v

Using a position-time graph, describe the motion of an object:

the rate of change of an object's position

a vector quantity

can be described using velocity-time graphs

Activity: analyzing velocity with Algodoo

Using a velocity-time graph, describe the motion of an object:

You are at school. You decide to walk 500m [E] to the mall and then 1200m [W] home.

a) What is your distance traveled?

b) What is your total displacement?

Try it!

at reference point

to the east of reference point

to the west of reference point

moving away (east) from reference point with constant speed

moving towards (west) reference point with constant speed

increasing speed

decreasing speed

constant velocity

And since velocity is a vector, an object experiencing uniform motion

must have:

D. Relating Motion Graphs

The slope of a position-time graph is equal to the velocity

The area under a velocity-time graph is equal to the distance traveled

Velocity-time graphs

the rate of change of an object's velocity

a vector quantity

can be described using acceleration-time graphs

Activity: analyzing acceleration with Algodoo

Using an acceleration-time graph, describe the motion of an object:

at reference point

to the east of reference point

to the west of reference point

moving away (east) from reference point with constant speed

moving towards (west) reference point with constant speed

increasing speed

decreasing speed

How are velocity-time graphs related to acceleration-time graphs?

Steps for solving uniform acceleration problems:

1. Given: Write down values given in question, establish positive directions

2. Find: Identify which variable you are solving for

3. Solution: Identify which equation contains the appropriate variables

4. Isolate the variable you are trying to solve for

5. Plug and play! (make sure units are compatible)

Classical & Modern Physics

Juno

Significant Figures and Rounding

express answers in scientific notation when it's quicker than writing out the number

you may also use metric prefixes to express a final answer when it's convenient

you should be able to convert units within the metric system

Scientific Notation and Prefixes

Given

: state given values with units and appropriate variables, convert units as necessary *** always include a diagram if you're not given one ***

Find

: list the variable you need to solve for

Solution

: rearrange equations and solve for variable

Problem Solving Method

Solve for n

Solve for V

Rearranging Equations

You can often simplify calculations by rearranging equations before plugging in numbers

round the final answer to the number of significant digits that has the

least amount of significant digits in your calculation

when in doubt, round to 3 significant figures

only round your final answers, carry extra digits through calculations and perform as few separate calculations as possible

60˚

[N 30˚ E]

or

Would headlights work at the speed of light?

Relative Motion

is this the whole story?

is there a speed limit?

The action and reaction forces are called action-reaction pairs

ALL forces require an action-reaction pair

The action and reaction forces are must be applied to different objects, so 2 FBD's are required to show both forces

Draw FBD's to show the action and reaction forces for each of the images

Compare the forces:

Brainstorm:

why might you want to increase friction?

how can you increase friction?

Brainstorm:

why might you want to decrease friction?

how can you decrease friction?

Units:

the Joule (J)

1J = 1N∆m

Spot the energy transformations

To work or not to work?

How can we calculate work when the force is not in the same direction as the displacement?

Does friction do work?

the force and displacement must be in the same direction for work to occur

Work-energy principle

We can express the transformation of energy from one form into another as energy transformation equations

Create an energy transformation equation for turning on a battery-powered flashlight

A.

Describe the motion of the particles in the different states of matter...

How many lightbulbs?

Test in Algodoo

What about if a ball is dropped vertically and from a pendulum from the same height? Which will be traveling the fastest at the bottom?

The cost of a kWh:

0 K = -273.15˚C

˚C = K + 273.15

Heating curves express the temperature of a substance as you add heat

Calculate how much heat you would have to add to 500mL (0.50 kg) of water to raise the temperature from -20˚C ice to 120˚C steam.

Putting it together...

latent heat is the heat released or absorbed when a substance changes state

specific latent heat of vaporization

- heat required to evaporate or condense 1kg of a substance

specific latent heat of fusion

- heat required to melt or freeze 1kg of a substance

Calculating Energy in Phase Changes

Calculating Energy for Heating Up/Cooling Down

c = specific heat capacity, how much energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1˚C

One thing that Einstein proved is that mass and energy are essentially equivalent.

Using this we can extend our Law of Conservation of Mass to the:

So what happens when we try to convert mass to energy?

Stellarator

Alpha Decay - emission of an alpha particle (Helium nucleus) during fission

Beta Decay - emission or absorption of a beta particle (electron or positron) when a proton turns into a neutron or a neutron into a proton

Gamma Decay - emission of a gamma ray (very high energy light) from an excited nucleus

This stuff is happening all the time around you!

The business of death...

http://nigelstanford.com/Cymatics/

If a tree falls in the forest and nobody is there to hear it does it still make a sound?

Vibration:

a cyclical motion about an equilibrium point

Harmonic motion:

motion that repeats itself periodically

Mechanical wave:

the transfer of energy through a medium due to a vibration

A. Types of Waves

B. Sound

List some examples

Which types of materials can transmit transverse and longitudinal waves?

What do we call the critical points of longitudinal and transverse waves?

Energy produced by vibrating objects detectable by the ear.

Is sound a mechanical wave?

Which type of wave is sound?

What is the medium (usually) with sound?

Cymatics

A. Characteristics of waves

amplitude

wavelength (lambda)

Physical Characteristics

period

frequency

Temporal (Time-based) Characteristics

phase shift

phase shift

How do each of these characteristics affect sound?

B. The speed of waves

Waves travel at different speeds in different media

What do you notice about the speed in solids, liquids and gases? Why is this?

Do you think that sound travels faster in warm air or slow air?

There are specialized equations to calculate the speed of waves in different types of objects, such as strings

The Universal Wave Equation

relates the speed of a wave to the frequency and wavelengh

derived from v=d/t

which units are to be used?

Loudness and distance

decibels, mach, sonic boom

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/wave-interference

Wave Interference Applet

4.4 Combining Waves

A. Wave Reflections

what happens when a wave meets a boundary?

what is the difference between a fixed and free end?

https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/wave-on-a-string

Interactive Wave Simulation

B. Wave Interference

what happens when 2 waves meet?

C. 2D Wave interference

what happens when the waves from 2 sound sources interfere?

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/wave-interference

Wave Interference Simulation

A. In and out of Phase

http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/superposition/superposition.html

Constructive Interference

Destructive Interference

when two waves meet and produce a wave with a larger amplitude

when two waves meet and produce a wave with a smaller amplitude

Principle of Superposition

the amplitude of interfering waves is the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves

What happens when you hear more than one wave at a time?

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Physics-Interactives/Waves-and-Sound/Standing-Wave-Patterns/Standing-Wave-Patterns-Interactive

4.5 Standing Waves

Standing Wave Patterns Interactive

How do instruments create sounds?

How do waves interfere when they are in phase?

How do waves interfere when they are out of phase?

How do noise canceling headphones work?

B. Different Frequencies

How do waves interfere when they are different frequencies?

They form intervals.

Interval:

difference between 2 frequencies

How come some intervals sound nice and others do not?

C. Slightly Different Frequencies

http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/superposition/superposition.html

How do waves interfere when they have slightly different frequencies?

Beats can actually be used to tune instruments!

beat frequency = difference between frequency of 2 waves

A. Creating Standing Waves

B. Resonance

Why do different instruments sound different?

The character of a musical instrument's sound is called its

timbre

Resonant frequency:

the frequency an object will naturally vibrate at (ie. the pitch of a guitar string)

Resonance:

when an object forces another object to vibrate at a certain frequency (pushing a swing at the right time)

Damping:

when the vibration in an object is reduced (pushing a swing at the wrong time)

Tuning fork demo...

2 ends fixed

1 end fixed

both ends open

**identify the nodes and antinodes

Using echo location

4.6 Sound and Movement

A. The Doppler Effect

What do you hear when a car drives by?

http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/doppler.htm#example

as a source of sound approaches an observer, the frequency of the sound increases

as the source of the sound moves away from the observer, the frequency of the sound decreases

The Doppler Effect

The Sonic Boom

When we're hearing all the instruments in an orchestra playing all at once, what are we actually hearing?

harmonica

clarinet

music box

ocarina

human voice

flute

wind chimes

piano

guitar

violin

Note: the pitch of an instrument is the loudest and lowest perceptable frequency created by an instrument, usually the fundamental

B. The Perception of Pitch

we perceive pitch logarithmically instead of linearly

each note (semitone) is 2^(1/12)x the previous pitch

test this out below: http://www.audiocheck.net/soundtests_nonlinear.php

why might this have been an evolutionary advantage?

How many volts?

What about batteries connected in series or parallel?

More voltage

Last longer

Superconductors

Non-Ohmic Resistors

https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/circuit-construction-kit-ac

Circuit Builder

https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/circuit-construction-kit-ac

Circuit Builder

Are current and voltage related?

B. Any Exceptions to Ohm's Law?

Is it possible for a material to have 0 electrical resistance?

When a light bulb or resistor heats up, the resistance tends to increase as well

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_velocity

A. Magnetic Fields

Lenz's Law

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/generator

Magnetic Field phet

opposite directions of fields

field lines represent the path a N monopole would act near the magnet

field lines go from north to south

field lines may not cross

lines closer together represent a stronger field

Drawing magnetic field lines

same directions of fields

B. Effects of moving charges on magnetic fields

C. Effects of magnetic fields on conductors

a current passing through a wire will create a magnetic field

use the right hand rule (RHR) to determine the direction of the field

According to the motor principle, what happens when you put two wires beside each other

with currents flowing in the same direction?

with currents flowing in opposite directions?

The Motor Principle

when a charge moves through a conductor in a magnetic field, there will be a force on the conductor

the direction of the force is according to the right hand rule

Solenoids

DC Motors

http://www.electricaleasy.com/2014/01/basic-working-of-dc-motor.html

How can we take advantage of the motor principle?

What will happen below:

Another application of the motor principle

Example problems:

Oersted's Principle

How can we take advantage of Oersted's Principle?

a coil of wire with a current passing through it is called a solenoid

solenoids act similarly to permanent bar magnets

Electromagnets

Speakers

Solenoid Lock

Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction

a change in magnetic field induces a voltage (and current) in a conductor

use the RHR to determine the direction of the current

Which direction is the conventional flow?

What about the electron flow?

AC Generator

Electric Guitar Pickups

See phet demo

Look familiar?

If a changing magnetic field induces a current in a coil, the electric current produces a force that opposes the change

Two sides of the same coin...

Try it!

What is 10m/s in km/h?

Unit Conversion and

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is a method for converting units using conversion factors

How many seconds in 2 years?

Behind the Scenes

note:

ignore

exact numbers

when considering the number of significant figures (they have an infinite number of decimal places)

study of matter and energy and the forces that describe the way the universe behaves

A. Mass and Weight

What do these measure?

C. Terminal Velocity

Draw a FBD for the following:

1. A parachutist when they jump out of a plane

2. A parachitist as they gain speed

3. A parachutist as the parachute is deployed

4. A parachutist standing on the ground

Terminal velocity

Speed in which the drag force is equal to the gravitational force.

Fastest free fall speed of object in a medium

Force-Displacement Graphs

Mr Notten pulls a 10kg block across the ground at a constant velocity using a force of 200N for 5m. He then lets go.

1) What will happen to the block?

2) Draw a Force-Displacement Graph.

1) Describe what is happening.

2) How much work is done to the object?

Amp-Hours

amp-hours = amps provided x hours in operation

Amp-hours (A-h) are used to determine how long a battery will last.

It is a measure of total charge a battery is able to move through a circuit

Drawing fields into and out of the page: