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Unit 7: States of Consciousness

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Joseph Giorlando

on 12 January 2018

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Transcript of Unit 7: States of Consciousness

Goals
Unit 7:

States of Consciousness

Hypnosis
Sleeping
Dreaming
Uses
Sleep
Insomnia
Sleep Apnea
What:
Person will often briefly awaken -
but not
remember in the morning
NREM III
Disorders
-
Common in Kids
Night Terrors
Episodes of
sudden
high arousal and appearance of
freight
(
NOT
a nightmare)
Performing actions usually done while conscious (
ex.
walking or talking) -
usually no
memory when awoken
Dreaming
Forget 5 minutes before falling sleep
Theories
Dreams mean little
Activation-Synthesis Theory
Brain
synthesizes
(combines) the
random
activations of neurons in the brain responsible for movement, vision, emotion
Information Processing
What:
Cognitive Development
Dreams are part of the brain's natural
cognitive
development
Wish Fulfillment Theory
Who:
Sigmund Freud
What:
Dreams are an opportunity to express otherwise
unacceptable

feelings (
ex.
violent, sexual)
Manifest Content
Social Influence Theory
What:
Subjects simply act out the role that is expected
"You are hypnotized!"
Divided Consciousness Theory
Believed:
Uses of Hypnosis
Pain Reduction
Depressants
Stimulants
Effect:
Depress the activity of neurons and slow body functions
Slows Sympathetic Nervous System
Barbiturates
Intended Uses:
aka.
"Downers"
Opiates
Characteristics:
Heroin, opium, morphine
Nicotine
Amphetamine
Ecstasy
Cocaine
Blocks the reuptake of
dopamine
Hypnotherapy
Addiction
Withdrawal
Physical discomfort or distress when the substance is stopped
Tolerance
Diminishing effect after regular use of the same dose of a drug - requiring
larger
doses for same effect
Study of Psychology
Early Psychology
Early Schools of Theory
Structuralism
Functionalism
Awake/Sleep Cycle
Disorders
Dreams mean a lot
Theories
Hypnosis is Nonsense
Hypnosis is Legit
Hallucinogens
Drug Use
Drug Altered
Essential Task 7-1:
Essential Task 7-2:
Essential Task 7-4:
Essential Task 7-6:
Essential Task 7-3:
Essential Task 7-5:
Trace the growth of psychology with specific attention to structuralism and functionalism in the early years.

Discuss aspects of sleeping
with emphasis on reasons for sleep, the sleep cycle, circadian rhythms and symptoms/treatments of sleep disorders (insomnia, night terrors, sleep apnea and narcolepsy).

Differentiate between major theories of dreaming
including neural activation, information processing, cognitive theory, and Freud’s wish fulfillment.

Explain hypnotic phenomena
(suggestibility, dissociation)
and describe historic and contemporary uses of hypnosis
(pain control, and psychotherapy).

Differentiate between agonist and antagonist drugs and identify the major psychoactive drug categories
(depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens) and classify specific drugs, including their psychological and physiological effects.

Discuss drug dependence, addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal.
Before 1879:
"Psychology"
was considered the same as philosophy - unscientific
After 1879:
First lab
for scientific experimentation of psychology opens
(University of Leipzig)
Who:
William Wundt
WUN
for
One
-
First
"Psychologist"
M
Who:
Edward Bradford Titchener
What:
Demo:
Introspection
D
Who:
What:
Roughly every 90 minutes we pass through a
full
cycle of
four distinct sleep stages
measured by an
EEG
Physical, mental and behavioral changes that follow a roughly
24-hour cycle
Major influences:
Sleep/wake cycles, hormone release

"jet lagged"
-
result of
"shifting"
circadian rhythms
Circadian Rhythm
What:
"biological clock"
Why?:
Group of neurons that respond to light/darkness - by releasing the hormone
melatonin
Awake
Awake and Alert
Awake but Relaxed
EEG Displays:
Beta Waves
EEG Displays:
Alpha Waves
Examples:
Examples:
Resting with eyes closed, meditation
Focused cognitive tasks (
ex.
test taking)
M
M
What:
Influences on Sleep:
Age
1
(Older people sleep
LESS

than younger)
2
Genetics
(Identical twins have more similar sleep schedules than fraternal)
Culture
3
(Modern lighting, late shifts, etc.)
Things have changed
Sleep Cycle
Stage 1:
What:
10 minute transition
between wakefulness and sleep - stage goes away as you sleep longer
Hypnagogic Sensation
Sudden
"awakening"
- often with feeling of falling
Non-Rapid Eye Movement 1

(NREM-1)
What:
Unique features:
Stage 2:
Non-Rapid Eye Movement 2
(NREM-2)
What:
"Baseline sleep" - where you spend
50%
of sleep
Unique features:
Sleep Spindles
What:
Short
bursts
of brain activity
What:
Rapid Eye Movement

(REM)
What:
0
2
4
6
Hours After Going to Bed
NREM1
NREM2
NREM2
NREM2
NREM2
NREM2
NREM2
NREM2
REM
REM
REM
NREM3
NREM3
NREM3
Last
stage in a cycle that
increases

in
length over night with varying EEG readings - including
same brain
activity as wake state
("paradoxical sleep")
When
VAST
majority of dreaming occurs
If deprived of REM sleep - MORE likely to enter when you fall asleep (known as
REM Rebound
)
STRONGLY
believed to improve memory for newly learned information
Unique features:
1
2
3
Sleep Cycle
What:
Reoccurring problem
falling
or
staying
asleep
Treatment:
Mimicking
effects of melatonin or GABA
Narcolepsy
Sudden,
unwarned
(often short) attacks of
uncontrollable
sleep attacks
What:
Treatment:
Amphetamines (stimulates
MORE
brain activity)
Causes:
Twin studies show high
heritability
Causes:
Obesity
Treatment:
Breathing mask
What:
Sleepwalking/Talking
What:
Momentary stopped breathing while sleeping
What:
Images, emotions or thoughts that occur during mostly
REM sleep
- while body is

paralyzed
Features:
Negative
(80%)
S
exual
(<10%)

Real life experiences
(
ex.
hunter gatherers dream more about animals)
What:
You dream about what your brain
matches
to you
memory
Dreams help us
sort out
days memories - helping retain new information
Sleep or Study?
You need to reach
REM
to truly retain new information....
SLEEP!
What:
Every Dream Has...
Latent Content
Surface storyline
(what actually happens)
Deep symbolic meaning
(often sexual)
Hypnosis
What:
Interaction in which the
subject
responds to
the hypnotist's

suggestions
that certain perceptions/behaviors/feelings will occur
Hypnosis Foundation Term
Suggestibility
What:
Measurement of
likelihood
to accept suggestions from a hypnotist
Demo:
Suggestibility
"Got so caught up in being hypnotized."
Who:
Ernest Hilgard
Hypnosis is a state of
dissociation
- split between streams of consciousness
(like texting and holding a conversation)
Hand in Ice Water:
Water feels COLD
PAIN
Attention
NO
Posthypnotic suggestions
for behaviors to be carried out
AFTER
(
ex.
weight loss)
Memory Recall
"Recalled memories" shown to be
VERY
unreliable
Yes
Yes
Depressants
Includes:
Alcohol
Barbiturates
Opiates
M
Include:
Short term treatment of insomnia
Characteristics:
Agonist
for GABA
("GABA a pillow")
Alcohol
Characteristics:
Large Doses:
Hinders
motor skills, speech, coordination, memory, judgment, perception, etc.
Expectancy:
Possible
placebo effect
Heightened

sex drive reported in both groups
Stimulants
Effects:
Stimulate activity of neurons
Includes:
Caffeine
Cocaine
Amphetamines
Nicotine
M
Effects:
Characteristics:
Causes release of dopamine and nonepinephrine
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
Includes:
Meth, Ecstasy
Intended Uses:
Hallucinogens
Effects:
Includes:
Ecstasy
LSD
Marijuana
Distort visual and auditory perception
Characteristics:
Agonist
of serotonin (and blocks serotonin reuptake)
Long-Term Use:
Permanent damage to serotonin neurons
Effects:
"Feel good feeling"
Block
norepinephrine
reuptake
Treatment of narcolepsy
Dependence
State when the body relies on a drug to
avoid withdrawal
What:
Can often be treated by slowly reducing dosages
Uncontrollable cravings to use a drug (or do a behavior)
What:
Dependence
can occur
without
addiction
Addiction
can occur
without
dependence
Addiction
can occur without physical dependence; consider cocaine or methamphetamine both have little outwardly apparent withdrawal syndrome but addiction to either can devastate lives. Non-substance addictions such as gambling, sex or internet also have no physical dependence. What is common to all these addictions is the
unnatural cravings
that prompt the compulsive behaviors.

Physical
dependence
can occur without addiction; this is the common experience of most chronic pain patients who are able to
take their opioid medication
as prescribed for pain
but don't develop
the uncontrollable compulsion and loss of control. A desire to avoid withdrawal is not addiction.
What:
What:
"It is
BETA
to be awake"
BETA
Waves
Alpha
Waves
ALPHA
males in the movie
TWILIGHT
(twilight = late night)
M
De
lta for
De
ep Sleep
M
REM
for d
RE
a
M
M
LATE
nt
LATE
r meaning of the dream
M
Definition of
manifest
is
"clear or obvious"
Instead of anesthesia in surgery
Agonist
for
endorphins

(natural pain relieving neurotransmitter) -
used for
pain relief
c
Early school that used
introspection
to study the
"structure of the mind"
Introspection
What:
Self-
examination of mental processes - such as describing your immediate sensation when hearing music
William James
Wanted to study
WHY
and
HOW
we behave (
"
WHY
did you feel that way?
)
Also:
Tutored
first female
APA president -
Mary Whiton Calkins
at Harvard
c
Concept:
Students introspected one another - using various sources and found the results varied considerably (which
was the problem
with structuralism)
Largely
unresponsive
and

deepest

stage when growth hormone is secreted from pituitary gland
Stage 3:
Non-Rapid Eye Movement 3
(NREM-3)
Ever been woken and feel exhausted?
Likely awaken during NREM3 when
Delta Waves
are exhibited
D
Concept:
Mr. G
tried
to use simple tests of suggestibility to gauge the willingness of students to
"follow the suggestions of the hypnotist"
- a test of suggestibility
and Wundt
Attention is
redirected
AWAY from the pain
Underlying problem in use of hypnosis
No truly reliable way to know someone is
"hypnotized"
Psychoactive Drugs
What:
A chemical that alters brain function - resulting in a temporary change in behavior, perception, mood, etc.
Antagonist Drug
Agonist Drug
What:
What:
MIMICS
a neurotransmitter -
triggering
action potential
BLOCKS
receptor sites and

STOPS
action potential
Example:
Curane Poisoning
Antagonist for Acetylcholine
AINT GOING
A GOING
Agonist
Antagonist
M
M
DEPRESS
Depress
for slow down
(so it will
MIMIC
the effects)
Stimulate
Stimulate activity
Well-being and arousal - though
short lived...
(increased alertness)
Awake
90 minutes
180 minutes
270 minutes
1
2
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