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Components of Fitness and Principles of training

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Emily Clark

on 11 October 2016

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Transcript of Components of Fitness and Principles of training

5 Components of Fitness

Heavy weight lifting?
Ballet? Or a cartwheel?
PRINCIPLE #1:
SPECIFICITY
To excel in a particular activity, you must practice the specific skills that activity requires.


When we train for a particular sport,
specific
adaptations take place in our bodies to make us better for
that activity
5 Components of Fitness
Cardiovascular Endurance
Definition:
ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles without fatigue

Body Composition
Definition: The amount of body fat a person has compared to lean body tissue
Lean body tissue is made up of bone, water, muscle, and organs
Flexibility
Definition: Ability to move the joints (for example, shoulder, hip) through an entire, normal range of motion.

Muscular Strength
Definition: The greatest amount of force muscles can exert in a single effort.

Muscular Endurance
Definition: The ability of muscles to perform an exercise with sub-maximal force for a long time
Overload must be
gradually
increased over time.
This can be done by increasing the

intensity
(how hard) and/or
duration
(how long) of the exercise

PRINCIPLE #3:
PROGRESSION
The work load of each exercise session must get harder and harder in order to improve


PRINCIPLE #2:
OVERLOAD

PROGRESSION=
LIFT THE COW

These are what define
OVERALL fitness
TO IMPROVE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS:
Aerobic exercise
At least 3 times per week
At least 15-20 minutes of continuous movement

Activities for body composition ( fat loss):

Any exercise expends calories- therefore aids in decreasing fat accumulation in the body
BUT....the 2 best exercises are:
Resistance training
- increases muscle and decreases body fat
Endurance based activity
(longer than 45 min continuous exercise)- draws on fat stores as energy
Activities that focus on cardiovascular endurance:

long distance running
basketball
biking
swimming
hiking
How to improve this component?
Do ANY continuous aerobic activity for more than 20 minutes, at least 3 times a week
Activities that focus on muscular endurance:
Endurance sports
Resistance Training- doing an exercise continuously for a period of time- plank, sit-ups, etc
Activities that focus on muscle strength:
Resistance Training
Pilates
Plyometrics
If you want to be a good swimmer, don't spend a lot of time training at the bowling alley!!!
Balance training by doing exercises that work opposing muscle groups
Example: weight training program-
15 x Bicep curls, 15 dips (for triceps)
Alternate between upper body and lower body exercises
Example: bench press, leg press, lat pull down, calf raises, etc.

PRINCIPLE #6:
BALANCE

Don't be like Popeye-- be balanced!
Become your OWN personal trainer...
You are going to create your OWN training plan that helps
YOU
become more fit in ALL 5 components....
You will do your personalized workout plan in the gym
tomorrow
!
Now you know what exercises to do....
Next, you need to
Apply the following 7 principles to your
training program

PRINCIPLE #4
Regularity
Exercise 30-60 minutes at least 5 days a week
Maintain motivation

DON'T BE A SLACKER/LAZY during the week
PRINCIPLE #7
VARIETY

To reduce boredom, and injury you can:
cross train
Don't do the SAME thing everyday
Add in weight lifting, core exercises, speed exercises, endurance exercises, etc.
Get creative!
Make it FUN!
Example:
Running program
Add in a day of playing ultimate frisbee
PRINCIPLE #5:
RECOVERY
You must give yourself recovery time to allow your body to adapt! Exercising too hard causes injuries!

Alternate easy and hard days- after a really tough day, do something easier
Example:
Monday: Run 4 x 1 mile repeats at race pace
Tuesday: Run 3 miles at a comfortable, conversational pace
Example: Running program
Week 1:

walk 3 minutes, run 5 minutes for 30 minutes
Week 2:
walk 2 minutes, run 6 minutes for 30 minutes
Week 3:
walk 1 minute, run 6 minutes for 35 minutes
Don't be a drill sergeant- give yourself a break!
Weekend Warriors GET HURT!
WHAT PRINCIPLES IS THIS LACKING IN?
What fitness component
is this stressing?

Imagine an extremely fit person ...
What physical characteristics do they have?
5 components of Fitness
Activities that focus on flexibility:
dance
ballet
gymnastics
yoga
martial arts

STRETCH when your muscles are warm
Dynamic stretching before workouts
Passive stretching after workouts (hold for 15-30 seconds
To Improve Flexibility
TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH :

Use Heavier weights to fatigue, 2-3 sets with 8-12 repetitions, 3 minutes rest between sets
To improve using weights:
Use lighter weight to fatigue, 2-3 sets, 15-20 repetitions, 1 minute rest between sets

Matching Game
Test your knowledge on the 5 components of Fitness!
Write your answers on your whiteboards while watching this clip...
Cardiovascular Endurance
Find your pulse.....
When I say go...start counting the beats
Full transcript