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Components of Fitness and Principles of training

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Emily Clark

on 28 July 2016

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Transcript of Components of Fitness and Principles of training

Components of Fitness
and
Principles of training
Heavy weight lifting?
Ballet? Or a cartwheel?
PRINCIPLE #1:
SPECIFICITY
To excel in a particular activity, you must practice the specific skills that activity requires.


When we train for a particular sport,
specific
adaptations take place in our bodies to make us better for
that activity
5 Components of Fitness
Cardiovascular & Respiratory Endurance
Efficiency with which the heart and lungs delivers oxygen and nutrients (and removes waste) needed for muscular activity

Body Composition
The amount of body fat a person has compared to lean body tissue
Lean body tissue
is made up of bone, water, muscle, and organs
Flexibility
Ability to move the joints (for example, shoulder, hip) through an entire, normal range of motion.

Muscular Strength
The greatest amount of force muscles can exert in a single effort.

Muscular Endurance
The ability of muscles to perform an exercise with sub-maximal force for a long time
Overload must be
gradually
increased over time.
This can be done by increasing the

intensity
(how hard) and/or
duration
(how long) of the exercise

PRINCIPLE #3:
PROGRESSION
The work load of each exercise session must get harder and harder in order to improve


PRINCIPLE #2:
OVERLOAD

PROGRESSION=
LIFT THE COW

Activities
that focus on flexibility:
dance
ballet
gymnastics
yoga
martial arts
These are what define
OVERALL fitness
TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH USING WEIGHTS:
Use Heavy weights with few repetitions (3-6 times)
TO IMPROVE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS:
Aerobic exercise
At least 3 times per week
At least 15-20 minutes of continuous movement

TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR ENDURANCE USING WEIGHTS:
Use light weight
Do the exercise at least 15 times each set


Activities for body composition ( fat loss):

Any exercise expends calories- therefore aids in decreasing fat accumulation in the body

The best activities for burning fat are
LONG
(at least 45min-1hr),
SLOW
(heart rate is up, but can be maintained),
ENDURANCE BASED ACTIVITIES
Activities that focus on cardio -respiratory endurance:
ANY aerobic activity (continuous exercise that lasts longer than 20 minutes)
Examples:
long distance running
elliptical
biking
swimming
going hiking up a mountain
Activities that focus on muscular endurance:
Aerobic sports such as:
long distance running
basketball
soccer
cross country skiing
swimming
To Improve Flexibility
STRETCH when your muscles are warm

Dynamic stretching before workouts

Passive stretching after workouts
Activities that focus on muscle strength:
Weight lifting
Using weight machines
Dumbells, free weights
Medicine balls
Body weight exercises
push-ups, sit-ups, etc.
Core exercises
Pilates
Plyometrics
If you want to be a good swimmer, don't spend a lot of time training at the bowling alley!!!
Balance training by doing exercises that work opposing muscle groups
Example: weight training program-
15 x Bicep curls, 15 dips (for triceps)
Alternate between upper body and lower body exercises
Example: bench press, leg press, lat pull down, calf raises, etc.

PRINCIPLE #6:
BALANCE

Don't be like Popeye-- be balanced!
Become your OWN personal trainer...
How can you create a training program that helps
YOU
achieve your fitness goals and increases your fitness level?????

Here's how......
Now you know what exercises to do....
Next, you need to
Apply the following 7 principles to your
training program

continuous movement for a long period of time......
PRINCIPLE #4
Regularity
Exercise 30-60 minutes at least 5 days a week
Maintain motivation

DON'T BE A SLACKER/LAZY during the week
PRINCIPLE #7
VARIETY

To reduce boredom, and injury you can:
cross train
Don't do the SAME thing everyday
Add in weight lifting, core exercises, speed exercises, endurance exercises, etc.
Get creative!
Make it FUN!
Example:
Running program
Add in a day of playing ultimate frisbee
PRINCIPLE #5:
RECOVERY
You must give yourself recovery time to allow your body to adapt! Exercising too hard causes injuries!

Alternate easy and hard days- after a really tough day, do something easier
Example:
Monday: Run 4 x 1 mile repeats at race pace
Tuesday: Run 3 miles at a comfortable, conversational pace
Example: Running program
Week 1:

walk 3 minutes, run 5 minutes for 30 minutes
Week 2:
walk 2 minutes, run 6 minutes for 30 minutes
Week 3:
walk 1 minute, run 6 minutes for 35 minutes
Don't be a drill sergeant- give yourself a break!
Weekend Warriors GET HURT!
WHAT PRINCIPLES IS THIS LACKING IN?
What fitness component
is this stressing?

Imagine the fittest person in the world...
What physical characteristics do they have?
5 components of Fitness
Full transcript