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Erik Erikson

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Laura Thrower

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson
Father of Psychosocial Development
Main Objective
Identify and implement the 3 stages most related to children in schools K-12 out of Erikson's 8 Stages of development

Trust vs Mistrust
Can I trust the people around me?

Success = trust, feelings of safety and security

Failure = fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable
Generativity vs. stagnation
How can I contribute to the world?

Success = feel that you are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community

Failure = feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
-Born in 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany
-Interested in identity at early age:
-Struggled in school
-Raised Jewish in Germany
-Discovered dad was not biological father

These feelings were later translated into an “identity crisis” which he defines later in life
Erikson later became a psychologist who did most his work in the 1930s to the 1950s. He was a student of Freud, and was greatly influenced by Freud's theories of personality development.

Unlike Freud, Erikson gave a great deal of importance to the social environment in a person's psychological development.

Erikson's theory concludes that:

- Every human passes through different stages in life
- Each stage is characterized by a different psychological crisis
- That crisis must be resolved before the person can successfully move on to the next stage
- The success of each stage is completely dependent on the previous stage’s crisis and how it was resolved

This is called 8 stages of development

A person must resolve a crisis, or it will continue to affect a person’s development throughout their life

is shown when children are rewarded for their accomplishments
occurs when children are punished for their efforts, they develop feelings of inferiority of their capabilities

Remain encouraging.

Give students opportunities to succeed in a challenging environment.

Give students their own responsibilities in the classroom (tasks, assign jobs, passing out material, feeding animal/plant etc)

Be clear and fair with the rules in the classroom. If rules are not fair or clear to students, they may gain a negative image about them which could lead to a negative effect on the student’s life.

Provide feedback to students.

Provide students with positive role models.

Give opportunities for students to bring their own interests in projects and work.

Encourage students to focus on their strengths and acknowledge when they use these strengths in the classroom.

Incorporate life skills into lesson planning to increase confidence and self- sufficiency

Encourage students to try different approaches in problem solving to build confidence
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt
Can I do things by myself or am I dependent on the help of others?

(Toilet training, learning to control a body function)

Success = confidence, will power to accomplish tasks

Failure = sense of inadequacy and self-doubt

Initiative vs. guilt
Am I good or bad?

The child in this stage is beginning to make decisions, and carry them out, primarily through play activities. Imagination is the key mover. A sense of purpose develops when they are able to envision something in their imagination and pursue it. Such initiative must be encouraged.

Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others.

Success = sense of initiative, feelings of security to lead others and make decisions

Failure = sense of guilt, feeling of being a nuisance

Industry vs. Inferiority
How can I be good?

This is when child’s relationship with other authority figures (teachers) come in. In school they are learning the skills needed to become a citizen and how they can be productive in their community.

According to Erikson, this stage is vital in the development of self-confidence. During school and other social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as reading, writing, drawing and solving problems. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Identity vs. role confusion
Who am I?

Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future.

What are my values? What is important? What am I going to be when I grow up? Self-definitions are addressed at this time. They may try out different identities, figuring out who they may be.
Intimacy vs. isolation
Will I be loved or will I be alone?

Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people.

Success = strong relationships
Failure = loneliness and isolation.
Integrity vs. despair
Did I live a meaningful life?

Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity.

Success = looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.

Failure = Feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.
Infancy (0-1 year)
Early Childhood (1-3 years)
Play Age (3-6 years)
School Age (6-12 years)
Adolescence (12-19 years)
Early Adulthood (20-25 years)
Adulthood (26-64 years)
Old Age (65-death)
"Erikson’s Stages of Development." Learning Theories RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.
"Erik Erikson's Theory of Development: A Teacher's Observations." Journal of the Krishnamurti Schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.
"Using Psychosocial Development in the Classroom." Erik Erikson 1902- 1994. N.p.. Web. 11 Feb 2014.
"Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development." About.com Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Feb. 2014.
Classroom Examples:
Avoid punishing students for making mistakes by guiding them to how to fix it.

Break instruction down into smaller steps

Give students opportunities to make their own decisions. Let students pick out what books they want to read or having a time during the day where they are able to pick an activity they would like to do.

Classroom Examples
Classroom Examples
What techniques and strategies will you implement to make a student in this stage successful in your classroom?
Autonomy vs. Shame
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Identity vs. Confusion
Industry vs. Inferiority
Initiative vs. Guilt
Integrity vs. Despair
Intimacy vs. Isolation
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