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Psychology Unit 1 AoS1: How does the brain function?

Developed for Mallacoota P-12 V.C.E. students who have purchased the book below. Reference: Grivas, J. (2016). Psychology VCE Units 1 and 2. 7th Ed. Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

Simon Berry

on 30 June 2016

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Transcript of Psychology Unit 1 AoS1: How does the brain function?

Psychology Unit 1
- How are behaviour and mental processes shaped?
Area of Study 1: How does the brain function?

Developed for Mallacoota P-12 V.C.E. students who have purchased the book below.
Reference: Grivas, J. (2016). Psychology VCE Units 1 and 2. 7th Ed. Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
What did we learn last lesson?
What are we learning today (lesson goals)?
What are we learning this week?

Home learning....any issues?

Introduction and Organisation
Learning Goals (Please write down)
To discuss “Learning Communities” and V.C.E. requirements
Technology use
To investigate what psychology is?
We are a “Learning Community”.

What does that mean? How can we help each other

Learning coordinator. Facilitator

You are your own best teacher!!!!!
- Reading, highlighting and notetaking is completed before class. Failure to do so will mean exclusion from the lesson, until complete.
- No homework, no entry

What are some guidelines and rules
- who ants to write it up?

Technologies and Study
Email list. The most important tool we have for communication.

People who can expertly use Google have a distinct advantage.

Smartphone will be used in certain activities. Unless I have told you to take them out, they must remain out of sight.
Safety and wellbeing
This study may include potentially sensitive topics. Teachers should ensure that students have
opportunities to consider topics systematically and objectively, and to become aware of the diversity
of views held on such matters. Students should not be asked to disclose personal information about
their own or others’ health status and behaviours nor should they feel compelled to volunteer this
When dealing with sensitive mental health matters, students should be specifically advised that they:
• should not necessarily interpret their own experiences as signs of pathology
• are not in a position to diagnose problems or offer any counselling or therapy.
In addition, students should be given information about sourcing available treatment services within
and outside school.
As part of this study teachers and students consider different assessments of intelligence, including
standardised psychological tests which are designed to be administered only by trained psychologists.
Teachers must limit access to such tests and ensure that
Ethics and privacy
As part of this study teachers and students will be involved in teaching and learning activities that
include experimental investigations using human subjects. Teachers and schools have a legal and
moral responsibility to ensure that students follow ethical principles at all times when undertaking
such investigations.

This includes privacy. Gossip is not something that we as PY students engage in.

Course Outline and Marking
Psychology course outline (#madeeasy)
VCAA dot points (#made easy)
SAC dates and marks

***do not lose these documents they will be used for revision.

Introduction (take 2)
What do we know about Psychology
- Please spend 2 minutes creating a personal (by yourself!!!) mind map in the front of your book.
***See if you can put things into categories

- Class mind map

1. Get a gmail account (write your password in your diary)
- Email me TODAY!
- Receive an email back

2. Log onto Prezi
- search for mreduberry (or http://prezi.com/user/mreduberry/)
- BOOKmark it
- Learn how to use it

3. Type in quizlet into google
- search for mreduberry
- BOOKmark it
- Learn how to use it
Definition of Psychology
Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes in humans.

It has 2 parts. Behaviour and Mental Processes.

List 3.
Examples of behaviours (must be seen)....
Examples of mental processes - feelings/thoughts(usually internal)....

**Now how are they linked
Review last years students comments. What can we learn?

**Psychologists identify the best ways to study


VCE is great for working out who is working the hardest.

Think Pair Share
Complete L.A. 1.1 pg 4.
Q1 - By yourself (Think)
Q2 - With your partner (Pair)
Q3 - As a class (Share)
Behaviour refers to any observable action made by a living person.
Eg Running, Crying, Eating

Mental process refers to an individuals throughs and feelings that CAN NOT be directly observed.
Eg Learning, reflecting, mood

However these can overlap!!
- four years of full-time study in a recognised psychology course at a university and...

- an additional two years of full-time (or equivalent) post-graduate study in psychology at a university,
- two years full-time (or equivalent) training under the supervision of a qualified and registered psychologist

Psychiatrist is a qualified medical doctor (6yrs at uni) who has obtained additional qualifications to become a specialist in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness and emotional problems
Pscyhology Vs Psychiatrist
- A psychiatrist is required to complete a medical degree prior to specialising in mental health.

- A psychiatrist can prescribe medication; a psychologist cannot.

- Psychologists have specialist training in non-medical interventions but will work closely with general practitioners or psychiatrists.

- Psychologists help both people with emotional and psychological difficulties as well as helping people who don't have these difficulties but wish to enhance their psychological wellbeing and functioning.

Psychology as a profession
Learning Activities
1. Similarities and differences table on board (or Gdoc)
2. In pairs create 2 quick acts that show an interaction between a psychologist and patient and psychiatry and patient.
Reference: http://www.slideshare.net/whatshername/ch-1-what-is-psychology
Basic psychology is the study of psychological topics in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application or use.

This typically involves research, which is often referred to as pure research
because there is not a focus on applying the research findings in a practical way....yet!

Applied psychology is the study of psychological topics that can be applied in a practical and relevant way

for example, studying whether techniques used to teach a non-human animal to communicate with sign language can be used to help a brain-damaged person to communicate.

Think......psychologists engaged in applied psychology work in clinical and counselling settings.
Two categories
Read BOX 1.2: Clinical psychologists

Read BOX 1.3: Sport psychologists

Close books. What do they do?
1. Leader/s
2. When it became prominent
3. Focus of study (what were they focusing on)
and Method of study (how did they do thier experiments)
4. Plus Minus Interesting table

Peer-Team Teaching
Simple, quick, clear posters
Discussion: LEARNING ACTIVITY 1.11 pg?
Each contemporary perspective represents a different point of view about human behaviour and mental processes

Each perspective has its own assumptions, questions and explanations of behaviour and mental processes

Therefore, each perspective will focus on different areas of study, use different methods of research and rely on different types of evidence

Psychologists today usually belong to one or more of these schools of thought.
Biological perspective
- Focuses on the biological (physiological) influences on behaviour and mental processes

- Studies the brain and nervous system and genetics

- Assumes that all our thoughts, feelings and behaviour are associated with underlying bodily activities and processes

The discovery that there are billions of neurons each releasing hundreds of neurotransmitters that play a vital role in human behaviour and mental processes. (sketch on board)

Nature part of the nature v nuture debate
Behavioural perspective
Read BOX 1.7: Split-brain surgery pg ?
Focuses on how behaviour is acquired or modified by environmental consequences such as rewards and punishments.

Emphasises the importance of studying the environmental influences on behaviour.

Proposes that
observable behaviour and not mental processes should be the focus of study

Assumes that all behaviour can be explained in terms of a learning process

This is the Nurture side of the nature v nurture debate
Skinner and Watson
Operant conditioning
– behaviour is formed, shaped and modified through rewards and punishments –

Consequences determine behaviour
Behaviour is rewarded – increase behaviour
Behaviour is punished – decrease behaviour
Modern Behaviourism recognises the important role of mental processes along with environmental factors in determining behaviour.

The role of learning is now viewed in conjunction with both environmental and cognitive factors
Pavlov and his dog
Classical conditioing -

What do you do when the bell rings?
Cognitive perspective
Focuses on how we acquire, process, remember and use information (cognitions) about ourselves and the world around us.

Emphasis is on understanding how we take in information and how we treat the information in order to think, feel and behave as we do.
Information processing model:
Thinking is likened to the way in which a computer inputs from the environment, that information into a usable form, the information in memory and the information when required.
Semantic network theory:
- describes and explains how vast amounts of information stored in Long Term Memory is organised in an interconnected ‘network’ to enable easy retrieval of the info when needed

Can explain - T.O.T phenomenon
Socio-cultural perspective
Focuses on the roles of social and cultural influences on human behaviour and mental processes

Highlights the diversity of human beings

Assumes socio-cultural factors such as sex, race, age, income level and cultural context are important influences on behaviour and mental processes

Has helped ensure that psychologists do not underestimate or overlook the importance of social and cultural influences on human behaviour and mental processes.

This means that when undertaking psychological research, the research samples need to be broadly representative of the populations to which the researchers want to apply their finding.

- Stratified sampling (quick exp)
Cultural differences mean that behaviour studied in one culture may not translate to behaviour in another culture

Eg. Social loafing
– where people in a group tend to exert less effort – is a common finding in many Western cultures but when resesrched in China participants working in a group worked harder than when working
No single perspective is ‘right’

Perspectives often overlap and complement each other

Eclectic approach enables types of behaviour to be understood and explained in a number of different way
In note books divide 4 pages in to 4 – brainstorm in pairs how each of the approaches would interpret the situation in your picture

Use the following prompts:
Major focus
Study method(s)


Scientific research that has found both males and females are more likely to be drawn to individuals who have similar looks and attitudes to their own

In everyday life we often use common sense judgements in trying to understand behaviour and mental processes. We use our life experiences, particularly our observations of the way in which we and others do things….

However, common sense psychology’, whereby people collect information about behaviour and mental processes informally or non-scientifically,
often leads to inaccurate conclusions.

...confirmation bias!
Is the popular belief that opposites attract’ a fact or a myth? Discuss Box 1.9
In fact, research studies have found evidence to suggest that people tend to collect information that supports their beliefs and ignore evidence that suggests that their beliefs may not be true.

The term scientific method refers to the systematic
approach for planning, conducting and reporting
research which involves collecting empirical evidence.

Collecting data through empirically based research allows psychologists to draw accurate conclusions
, which are more likely to be free from personal biases, which hopefully do not influence the interpretation of data.
Double blind studies!
Human error can occur and it is overcome by replication.

Replication involves conducting a study again to establish whether the results obtained can be duplicated, and are therefore reliable and able to be generalised to apply to other people across a range of situations and settings.

There are many other ways of explaining human thoughts, feelings and behaviour that are not based on science. Some of these approaches claim to be scientific but are not.

Please write down some examples of this?

Astrology describes the belief that the movement of the stars and planets influences our personality, moods, behaviour, events in our lives and so on.

Numerology involves examining significant numbers in an individuals life (for example, birth date, house address or phone number) to predict future events

How are these similar to scientific research...how are they different?

These kinds of alternative approaches are often called pseudosciences.

Pseudo’is a prefix used to indicate that something is fake or falsely imitates something else. Consequently, pseudoscience means fake or false science
Psychologists and other scientists also hold a view that common sense, faith or personal beliefs cannot be used as the sole basis of explaining thoughts, feelings and behaviour, or determining whether or not something is true.

Psychics and psi abilities
A psychic is someone who claims to have supernatural ‘powers’ associated with the mind. These alleged powers’ are called psi abilities
Out of body experience???
Chapter I: Introduction to Psychology

Learning Community
Learning and studying
As class
Read box 1.1 and 1.2 pg 7
You have 20 minutes to complete these posters. 10 minutes to present.
Resources you can use:
- Textbook
- http://www.simplypsychology.org/
- www.wikipedia.com
- any others that are VALID

**More information below. Be creative, pictures are great!
Psychology Professions
1. Title of position
2. Education Pathway - how do you become one
3. Focus of study/practice (what are they focusing on)
and Method of study/practice (how do they practice)
4. Plus Minus Interesting table

You should begin revising....NOW
Reread your Chr notes AND class notes


Chapter 2: Research Methods
Chapter 3: Role of the brain in mental processes and behaviour
Chapter 4: Brain plasticity and brain damage
Bigger brains are smarter brains (only between species, sorry big heads don’t mean your smart!)

You only use about 10% of your brain

Sleep aids memory formation

You can grow new brain cells

Bad diets can cause brain damage

Thinking bad things can make you sick

You can be brain dead but remain alive

The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe

There is a you part of the brain – a bit that controls the rest

The brain is partly made of fat

No two nerve cells in your brain actually touch

Your brain uses electricity to think

Depression is a physiological disease
Bigger brains are smarter brains

You only use about 10% of your brain

Sleep aids memory formation

You can grow new brain cells

Bad diets can cause brain damage

Thinking bad things can make you sick

You can be brain dead but remain alive

The brain is the most complex structure in the known universe

There is a you part of the brain – a bit that controls the rest

The brain is partly made of fat

No two nerve cells in your brain actually touch

Your brain uses electricity to think

Depression is a physiological disease
Brain Myths Hit or sh%t?
Mindmap.....What does our brain do?
Write for 2 minutes straight. Do not take your pen off the book?

This is called your consciousness. Where does it come from?
The brain is the
control center
for all human behaviour, without understanding our brains and nervous systems we can never fully understand behaviour.

Some scientists argue that all human behaviour can be traced to biological functioning.

Our Brains are our most important organ, they make us who we are.

The bigger an organisms


cortex the more intelligent it seems to be – this is NOT true within species! E.g. Einstien

Learning and Memory involve physical changes in your brain! You will be different by the end of the lesson!
Adult brain weighs about 1.5kg
It has the consistency of jelly
If spread out flat it would cover about 6 pages of the age newspaper
You are born with all of the nerve cells you will ever have, about 100 billion
Your brain grows connections between nerve cells, making your brain more dense
Every single brain cell can form connections with around 10,000 other nerve cells
The Human Brain: Get a feel for it….
More Highly Evolved?
Humans – the best brain...for us
Approaches over time to understanding the role of the brain
Plus - Minus - Interesting Class Table
Pg 98
- Brain Vs Heart Debate
- Mind - Body problem
- Phrenology

First Brain Experiments
Brain Ablation Experiments
Brain ablation invovles disabling, destroying or removing selected parts of the brain tissue followed by an assessment of subsequent changes in behaviours.

Pierre Flourens - Pioreer
In 1820s
Worked with animals
Rabbits and Pigeons
He developed techniques to damage small parts of the animal brains and found different parts were responsible for different functions
Eg. Hindbrain - breathing
Found that if small parts were missing the animals could eventually get back some part of the behaviour they lost (1st recorded evidence of neuroplactisity
Challenged phrenology
Electrical Stimulation of the brain
Weak electricical signals are generated in the brain constantly by neurons.

This electrical activity can be detected and stimulated using an electrode that is placed into a specific are of the brain - called electrical stimulation of the brain (EBS)
Mmm...in use into today
First used by Fritsch and Hitzig 1870s
- Found 5 sites that when stimulated triggered movement in opposite side of body.

Penfield mapped the cerebral cortex with research participants (being treating for epilepsy) in the 1940s using:
- 20 years of research with 300 patients

Not used today. Extremely invasive and potentially harmful.

Electrical Stimulation on Animals
Split Brain Experiments
Early split brain research by Michael Gazzaniga
Split brain surgeries involves surgically cutting the corpus callosum (and other nerves connecting the hemispheres)

The effect is that the two hemispheres do not directly communicate (share information)
Sperry and Gazzaniga tested the functioning of each hemisphere independently of the other in split-brain patients.

The results - blocks the interhemispheric transfer of perceptual, sensory, motor, gnostic and other forms of information in a dramatic way.

This allowed Gazzaniga and Sperry to gain insights into hemispheric differences as well as the mechanisms through which the two hemispheres interact
Initially with cats then monkeys then humans

The procedure worked well as a "cure" for patients who suffered from severe epilepsy and did not respond to anti-epileptic drugs.

It was soon discovered that patients who had a commissurotomy had some interesting difficulties.

Patients were not able to communicate information from one hemisphere to the other, almost as though they now
had two separate brains.
Sperry also argued that just b.c the CC was severed didn't mean there were two brains. He argued the combined (using other cues) to create consciousness.
Sperry and Gazzaniga's study
Normal Brain
- Participants with objects flashed on the right visual field (so left hemisphere) could name they object.

- Participants with objects flashed onto the left visual field (so right hemisphere) could not name the object but could reach and identify it with their left hand.
Neuroimaging techniques
Neuroimaging is a technique that captures a picture of the brain.

Complete table while we go pg 112
Computerised tomography (CT) uses x-ray equipment to scan the brain at different angles.

A computer builds up a picture and creates an image showing a horizontal cross-section of the brain, as if it has been sliced through.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses harmless magnetic fields to vibrate atoms in the brain’s neurons and generate a computer image of the brain.
Structural Scans (Shows anatomy)
Functional Scans (Shows the brain working)
Positron emission tomography (PET) produces colour images showing brain structure, activity and function.

In brain research, PET is used to record the level of activity in different brain areas while the participant engages in some kind of mental or low level physical task, such as imagining, remembering, listening, talking or moving a body part.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) detects and records brain activity by measuring oxygen consumption across the brain.

However, it does not expose participants to radioactive tracers. The technique exploits the fact that blood is more oxygenated in highly active parts of the brain.

Brain areas that are more or less active during a given task are identified by detecting changes in oxygen levels in the blood as it flows through the brain.
The electroencephalogram (EEG) detects, amplifies and records general patterns of electrical activity in the brain.

The activity is detected by multiple electrodes attached to the scalp, usually through an ‘EEG cap’. The EEG amplifies and translates the weak activity into a visual pattern of brainwaves.

It can assist with measures of awareness. E.g. Sleep states.
Nervous System: Structure and Function
Human Nervous System
The human nervous system is responsible for all aspects of what we think, feel and do.

The human nervous system is a complex combination of neurons. It enables us to gather information from
the body.

Its three main functions are to:
information, and
coordinate a
to information.

Come up with one example of the Human Nervous System at work, share with your partner. Mr. B First
It has two major divisions. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
Central Nervous System
The CNS has two main parts.
The brain
(organises, intergrates and interprets information) and
the spinal cord
(connects the brain to the PNS)
A dendrite
(from the Greek work meaning 'tree') is a short, thin, widely branching nerve fibre that is specialised to detect and receive neural information.

The soma or cell body
is the structure that determines whether the neuron will be activated and thus transmit (send) messages to other neurons.

An axon
is a single, tube like, fluid-filled extension that transmits messages from the soma to other cells in the body including other neurons, muscles, organs and glands. Encased in a white fatty substance that helps speed un transmission called myelin sheath.

At the end of each axon are branches called
axon terminals.
Each axon terminal has a small knob-like swelling at the tip of it called a terminal button / synaptic knob

Myelin is a white fatty substance that coats and helps insulate the axon from the activity of other nearby axons.

synaptic knob
is a small structure like a sac that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters which assist in the transmission neural information from one neuron to another
100 billion neurons
10,000 connections for each neuron
The gap between neurons is called the synapse.

 When the neural impulse reaches the end of each axon, the terminal buttons
releases chemicals called neurotransmitters

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is manufactured by the neuron. It contains ions that travel across the synapse to the receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neuron

Sometime the neurotransmitter triggers or activates a neural impulse on the connecting neuron. At other times, the neurotransmitter inhibits or prevents the connecting neuron from firing

When the neurotransmitter has done its job it is either taken back by the terminal buttons or disposed off.
Synaptic transmission
A neuron is a nerve cell that sends and receives information in the form of neural impulses (neural impulses are tiny pulses of electro-chemical energy)

Sensory and motor neurons do not share the same tracts (pathways) to and from the brain, they follow separate but adjacent paths.

Sensory (feeling) neurons – afferent
Motor (Moving) neurons – efferent

Interneurons – connecting (enable the spinal reflex, sensory communicate with motor)
Neurons –building blocks of the Nervous System
The spinal cord is the cable like colum of nerve fibers that extends from the back of the brain to the lower back.

- Encased by the vertebrae bones
- is the super highway for all information / messages
- Transmission occurs through neural (never) tracks
- coming to (afferent - sensory neurons/pathways)
leaving (efferent - motor neurons/pathway)
Links the Brain to the PNS
Label the Neuron
Cell body (soma)
Axon Terminals
Terminal Buttons
The Parts of a Neuron
An Action Potential
Spinal Cord:
Connections and Neurons
2 Major Functions
Receive sensory information from the body
via the PNS
sending to the brain
ascending neural pathways for
somatosensory info
afferent pathways/neurons
(afferent means towards)
Send information from the brain to relevant parts of body
via the PNS
sending from the brain
descending neural pathways for
motor info
efferent pathways/neurons
(efferent means exit - from brain)
Spinal Reflex
Spinal Damage
When damaged sensory and motor information is lost

How bad depends on how high the damage occurs
Spinal cord can initiate simple responses

Called reflex or reflex arcs

Involuntary / occur automatically to certain stimuli

Eg. Hot plate
L.A. 3.9 pg 117
Q1, 2
Ext 4
The Brain is an intricate network of cells that plays a vital role in processing information received through nerve pathways from the body and in directing responses.

It has a role in almost every we do.

Often called the 'Control Center'.

PY Improvements
- There is time to discuss problems with classwork or homework
- The teacher gives me enough time to think about questions that are asked
- The teacher reviews the learning intentions at the end of the lesson

Open ended:
Slow down when getting excited
Give more time to ask questions
Slow down when speaking
Dedicate more time to group learning

How could the teacher motivate and encourage you further?
Give us the study design at the beginning of the year (ARRRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!)
Give us the list of what we will be tested on earlier in the year (ARRRRRRRRRRRR!!!!!!)

- I study as much as I should
- I utilise study halls.
- I use the planner and record all homework and work requirements etc.
(only 3/9 or 33% agreed with or strongly agreed with each of these statements) VCE is all about study.

Open ended
Apply myself more
Study more and get work in on time
Utilise more kinds of revision
Revise throughout the year more
More effort
Utilise more types of revision

Exam revision and preparation feedback (weakest areas!)
- I completed the required hours I committed to (only 4/9 stated they did)
- I used my study cards to study
- I utalised study halls this year

What things could Mr. Berry do to improve revision practices?
Nothing, its organised really well and thoroughly
Give students the list of things to revise at the beginning of the year (ARRRRRRR!!!!)
Start with the exam from 2 years ago to be done in exam conditions, in the mudbrick. Work out weaknesses, target the weaknesses. After 3 weeks, do the exam from 3 years ago to find anymore weaknesses, again target those weaknesses. In the last week complete the exam from last year. (Which years practise exam can be switched around to how you feel is best for the accuracy of targeting the study design and making the most of the six week study.)
Give us the diary earlier in the year

Southpark...cold reading 7 mins
The Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic function – sympathetic and parasympathetic
Connected to internal organs, not consciously controlled. Keeps us alive – automatically.

Sympathetic branch
controls arousal, fight or flight response / fires us up. Release of adrenaline, heart up, breathing up etc.

calms back down, keeps at stable level. Digestion resting etc.
The word
soma means body!

Motor information from the brain. Voluntary movement

Sensory information to the brain. Sense data from skin, body etc.

Afferent (nerves/pathways)– to the brain
Efferent (nerves/pathways)– from the brain

S.A.M.E. – sensory nerves are afferent, motor nerves are efferent
The Somatic Branch
Central NS is includes the brain and the spine
Peripheral NS includes everything outside of the CNS!!!!!
It is sympathetic arousal!
In response to a real or imagined threat
Physical or psychological danger
Sympathetic: Fight or Flight
Question 1: Identify the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.

Question 2: Which neuron carries information to the CNS?

Question 3: Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for transferring sensory information to the brain?

Question 4: Identify the technique used to control involuntary bodily functions generally regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Question 5: Does the parasympathetic nervous system control activity of the body’s organs immediately or gradually?

Question 6: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for goosebumps?

Question 7: What is the name of the balanced state of normal bodily functioning?
Quick quiz - Write the answers
Autonomic nervous system
Some of these autonomic responses can be controlled voluntarily, others with the help of

This involves using information about internal bodily activity to exert control over that process.

Describe the process of learning the biofeedback technique.
How could biofeedback be beneficial?
Use the image to fill in the gaps:

In this situation, the ___________ nervous system would be activated. This would _______ the activity of your visceral muscles. This might mean that your pupils _____, heart rate __________, and your adrenal glands ________ hormone secretion.
Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system immediately increases the activity of visceral muscles, organs and glands at times of vigorous activity, stress or threat.
Parasympathetic nervous system gradually decreases activity of visceral muscles, organs and glands once the threat has been eliminated. It aims to maintain a balanced state of the body called homeostasis.
Divisions of the ANS
Use the image to fill in the gaps:

In this situation, the ______________ nervous system would be dominant. This would ________ the activity of your visceral muscles, maintaining a state of ___________. This might mean that your saliva glands _______ salivation, sweat glands ________ perspiration and your adrenal glands _____ hormone secretion.
Sympathetic vs. parasympathetic
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia
outside of the brain and spinal cord.

The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs.

2 main functions:
to carry information to the CNS
(internal/external enviornment, sensory organs
(afferent pathways)
to carry information from the CNS
to muscles, organis, clands
(efferent pathways)

The peripheral nervous system is divided into the
somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
The somatic nervous system, also carrys sensory information TO the CNS along sensory pathways
- is a network of nerves that connects the CSN to the bodies internal organs (such as the heart, stomach liver, and glands (adrenal and salivary).

It is 'automonous' b/c many of the features are not usually under voluntary control.
Learning Activity pg 5.3
Ext 2,4
Question 1: Identify the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.
Answer: Somatic and autonomic.
Question 2: Which neuron carries information to the CNS?
Answer: The sensory neuron.
Question 3: Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for transferring sensory information to the brain?
Answer: The autonomic nervous system.
Question 4: Identify the technique used to control involuntary bodily functions generally regulated by the autonomic nervous system.
Answer: Biofeedback.
Question 5: Does the parasympathetic nervous system control activity of the body’s organs immediately or gradually?
Answer: Gradually.
Question 6: Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for goosebumps?
Answer: The sympathetic nervous system.
Question 7: What is the name of the balanced state of normal bodily functioning?
Answer: Homeostasis.
The parasympathetic NS is the system that dominated most of the time. It is involved in everyday functioning.

It brings us back down..slowely
Learning Activity 5.1 pg 222
Ext 2,3,4
Learning Activity 4.5 pg 225
As a class
Role of the Neuron
Glial Cells
Structure and Function of Brain Areas
Role of the Cerebral Cortex
The homunculus man
Motor and Sensory Cortex organisation
Receives information from photoreceptors in eye. This is where our visual reality is formed

Located at botton and back of Occipital lobe.

Left half of each eye receives info from the right visual field. Left half of each eye send to the left hemisphere

Right half of each eye receives info from left visual field. Right half of each eye sends to the right hemisphere

Draw on board.
Only in the left hemisphere

Is involved in speech production

- has a crucial role in the comprehension of speech - specifically interpreting human speech

Interprets the sounds of human speech
Locates appropriate words from memory to express meaning

Until the information has passed through Wernicke's area it can not be understood

Vital for not just understanding words but locating appropriate words from memory.
Wernicke’s area
parietal lobe characteristics:
receives and processes sensory information (inside and outside body)
called primary somatosensory cortex
Association areas

Only in the left hemisphere responsible for:

Production of articulate speech
Coordinates movements of muscles required for speech.
Why is it next to the primary motor cortex?

Understanding of grammatical structure in order to extract meaning that depends on that grammatical structure
Broca’s area
Responsible for voluntary muscle movement

Controls voluntary muscle movement

The greatest area on the cortex is devoted to the most sensitive areas (tongue, jaw lips)

Left hemisphere sends messages to right side of body and right hemisphere sends messages to left side of body
Primary motor cortex
 The largest of the 4 lobes. Characteristics:
Primary motor cortex – movement
Broca’s area speech production
Association areas
The frontal Lobe
Structure and function: different parts of the brain control different functions.
Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
Convoluted outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres

Surface area approximately 0.25m2

2-4mm thick

3 broad categories
Sensory cortex areas (receives & processes info about senses)
Motor cortex areas (receives, processes & sends info about voluntarily body movements)
Association cortex areas – integrate sensory, motor & other info

Divided into cortical lobes
Size of cerebral cortex is linked to intellectual ability
(between species)
Characteristics of the cerebral cortex
The Occipital Lobe
Mediation of fear

Seizures involving the amygdala involve intense fear
Damage leaves a person unable to learn a fear response through classical conditioning

Involved in remembering the emotional significance of an event

Damage leaves us unable to judge emotional component of facial expressions in others
– i.e. angry person perceived as calm or even happy

Memory formation – not memory storage

Damage leaves patient unable to form new long term memories
Deep within the temporal lobe- the amygdala
The temporal lobe Characteristics:
is primarily involved in with auditory perception
important role in memory (with hypocampus)
facial recgonition
emotional responses
Association Functions
The temporal Lobe
Motor and Sensory Cortex organisation
The Parietal lobe
Two Great Revision web sites
Each hemisphere of the cortex can be divided further into 4 lobes
(Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal)
FPOT (put the F*&%ing POT on)

These lobes are also responsible for specific behaviours
, i.e. the frontal lobes control emotional behaviour, planning etc.

These Lobes also receive and processes information from a particular sense.
Occipital lobes = visual information,
Temporal lobes= Auditory (sound)
Parietal lobes= somatosensory (body and skin)
Frontal lobes. This lobe is involved in initiating movement of the body
The Lobes of the cortex
The cerebral cortex is made up of two separate but linked hemispheres (halves)

Each hemisphere (left or right) is responsible for movement and sensation in the opposite side of the body.

Each hemisphere is also involved in specific functions i.e. the left side controls our ability to use and understand language

The two hemispheres are linked by a bundle of nerves (neurons) called the Corpus Callosum
The hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex
These lobes cover both the left and right hemispheres – Note that
hemispheric specialization still stands (eg. Left hemisphere predominately involved in language)

Left frontal lobe – speech production – motor movement in frontal lobe
Left temporal lobe – speech comprehension – auditory info in temporal
The Lobes of the cortex
The Lobes of the cortex- Sketch
The corpus Callosum
The hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex
Left controls Right

Right controls Left

No one knows why so don’t ask!

This diagram is from the back

Note sexy yellow budgie smugglers
The Cross over….
There are 3 main areas/categories of cortical functioning.
Sensory Cortex areas
Motor Cortex areas
and association cortex areas

What do you think these each do?
Sensory Cortex areas: Responsible for receiving and processing information from our senses.

Motor Cortex areas: receives, processes and sends information about voluntary bodily movements.

Association cortex areas: integrate sensory, motor and other information (involved in complex mental abilities, such as thinking and problem solving)
Located at front of the parietal lobe next to the primary motor cortex:
Receives info from senses (touch, pressure, temp)
Information about muscle movement
Position of limbs
Greatest area of the cortex devoted to the most sensitive areas (face muscles etc)
Left Hem recieves info from right body, Right Hem recieves info from left
Primary somatosensory cortex
Why is it all wrinkled?
By wrinkling itself it can create more surface area. When spread out the cerebral cortex would cover 7 text books (open)
PAC in each lobe receives & processes sound from BOTH ears

Each PAC has specialist areas that receive and process features of sound
Frequency (pitch)
Amplitude/Intensity (loudness)

Verbal sounds mostly left hemisphere
Non verbal (music) mostly right

Deep within temporal lobe (MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE) two important structures
Crutcial roles in memory formation. If damaged memory issues.
Primary auditory cortex
Occipital Lobes Characteristics:
Almost exclusively devoted to the sense of Vision.
Damage can produce blindness even if the eyes and neural connections to the brain are normal.
Major area is the primary visual cortex.

Primary visual cortex
Association areas
Are just if not more important....
Association areas function to produce a meaningful perceptual experience of the world, enable us to interact effectively, and support abstract thinking and language.

parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes - all located in the posterior part of the cortex - organize sensory information into a coherent perceptual model of our environment centered on our body image.
frontal lobe or prefrontal association complex is involved in planning actions and movement, as well as abstract thought
Learning Activities
Balloon Time!

LA 3.20 pg 138
and complete 3.20 table (handout)

Then complet L.A. 3.21 pg 139
Roles and Functions of Cerebral Cortex
The Cerebral cortex is involved with information processing activities such as:
Executive functioning (thinking, problem solving)
Sensorimotor functioning (sensation and voluntary movement)
Association Areas
In the front of the lobe (prefrontal cortex):
recieve/combine information from all other lobes
allow the preformance of complex mental functions
Other Association areas are involved in
control/expression of emotions

The frontal lobe has an executive function:
end point for a lot of neural tracks
coordinated other lobes
determines a lot of b'hav responses.
Receive/Combine information from within lobe and other structures of brain.
Spatial reasoning (primarily in the right hemisphere)
- Enables us to sense the position of our body in space
spatial reasoning
Association areas
Play a role in:
- Memory (including linking emotions with memory)
- Perception (Object identification, Facial recognition)
- Different types of Long Term Memory
Semantic (facts)
Procedural (how to do things)
Episodic (life history)
Association areas:
Tying it all together

Interact with the Primary Visual cortex to:
Visual information

Interact with association areas in the frontal, parietal, and temporal (also with other information - memory, language, sounds)
Association areas:
Secondary Visual Areas
Specialised to respond to different features of visual information arriving there:
- Orientation
- Direction
- Edges
- Shapes
- Colour
- Motion
More detail later....
L.A. 3.9 pg 117
Q2, 4, 5ab, 6

Structure of a Neuron
Cool Summary video
Tying it together
Glial cells (sometimes called glia and neuroglia) provide insulation, nutrients and support for neuronal function, as well as aiding repair of neurons and eliminating waste materials.
The support team
Astrocytes (star shaped)
- provide structural support for neurons by holding them in place,
- nutritional support by regulating local blood flow to provide more supplies to neurons when they are active, - - - secrete chemicals that keep neurons healthy
- assist recovery of damaged neurons
- involved in the formation of new connections between neighbouring neurons.
Microglia (extremely small)
- act like immune system cells elsewhere in the body by protecting neurons from intruders.
- monitor the health of brain tissue and identify and devour foreign substances.
- when brain cells are damaged, microglia invade the area to help repair it
- help clean up the nervous system by eliminating foreign matter and debris such as the remains of dead neurons.
Oligodendroglia (insulation neurons - CNS)
- forming and maintaining the myelin sheath surrounding the axon, thereby preventing adjacent neurons from short-circuiting and also speeding up the process of communication.
- absorb chemicals that the neuron secretes and secrete chemicals that the neuron absorbs, roles that are believed to contribute to a neuron’s nutrition and function.
Schwann cells (insulation neurons - PNS)
- functions similar to those of oligodendroglia,
- they form the myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
L.A. 3.10 pg 121
Q1, 5a, 6a
Ext 3, 6bc
**Fill in the Brain Structure handout as we go.

The hindbrain is a collection of lower level brain structures that include the
cerebellum, medulla and pons.

These control or influence:
- various motor functions
- vital, automatic responses such as breathing and heart rate
- sleep and arousal (‘alertness’).

What would the symptoms of someone with damage to their pons be?
The cerebellum, located at the base of the brain, is a cauliflower-shaped structure about the size of a tennis ball in adult brains.

It is the second largest part of the brain with 10% of the brain’s mass, yet contains about 80% of the brain’s neurons (Herculano-Houzel & Lent, 2005).

- coordinates f ine muscle movements
(show me)
- regulates posture and balance
- assists in making movement smooth and precise (decision to move is higher up)
- involved in activities requiring a rapid and skilled sequence of movement
- involved in learning and memory associated with movement/

The medulla is a continuation of the spinal cord, so it connects to the brain.

The medulla controls vital bodily functions such as:
- swallowing, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, vomiting, salivating, coughing and sneezing, (all of which occur automatically)

Serious injury to the medulla (a blow to the back of the head), is often fatal.

Some parts of the medulla are also involved in sensations such as touch, pressure and vibration.
The pons is a small bundle of neural tissue about 2.5 cm long. (just above the medulla)

The pons is involved in:
- sleep, dreaming and arousal from sleep (‘waking’),
- helping control breathing and coordination of some muscle movements.

The pons also serves as a ‘bridge’ that connects parts of the brain with one another by relaying messages between the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and between the medulla and midbrain.
The midbrain is a collection of structures involved with movement, processing of visual, auditory and tactile sensory information, sleep and arousal.

It is about 2.5 cm long and contains neural pathways connecting upper and lower brain areas
Running through the centre of the midbrain and the hindbrain (and the brain stem) and upward to the forebrain is the reticular formation, a network of neurons, about the thickness of your middle finger.

The reticular formation helps screen incoming information so as not to overload the brain, alerts higher brain centres to important information, helps maintain consciousness, and regulates arousal and muscle tone (tension).
The forebrain is the largest and most prominent part of the brain. (Human % very large)

It is located above the midbrain and extends across the top of the brain.

The forebrain is a collection of upper level structures that include the
hypothalamus, thalamus and cerebrum.

Together with other structures, the forebrain
regulates complex cognitive processes such as thinking, learning, memory and perception, as well as various aspects of emotion and personality.
Although only about the size of a sultana grape, the hypothalamus has a vital role in maintaining the body’s internal environment and takes part in numerous behaviours.

Its main functions include:
regulating the release of hormones from various glands in the body (through its control of the pituitary gland)
- influencing behaviours associated with basic biological needs, such as hunger, thirst and sleep.
The thalamus filters information from almost all the sense receptor sites (except the nose), then passes it to relevant areas of the brain for further processing.

Thus, the thalamus functions like a ‘relay station’ in the brain.
The cerebrum is located above and in front of the cerebellum and occupies most of the forebrain.

The cerebrum consists of an outer cerebral cortex and masses of neural tissue where neurons form connections with each other and receive and process incoming and outgoing information.

The cerebrum and its outer cortex are primarily responsible for almost everything we consciously think, feel and do.
L.A. 3.12
Class Discussion Q4
Ext Q5a,b,c
The idea that one hemisphere has specialised functions or exerts greater control over a particular function is called hemispheric specialisation.
- We are actually moving away from this simplistic explination
L.A. 3.15 pg 132
As class Q4, 5
L.A 3.18 pg 136
As a class 1 and 2
Interesting read
- Computers out. Lets practice. (Accessing our shared folder too)

Chr 3 test (and correction - m/c) due...

RE-read notes

SAC is in...

Brain Development in infancy and adolescence
Impact of Injury to the Cerebral Cortex and Plasticity
Parkinson's Disease
Mindmap - Brain Development (from your reading...with a partner) pg 147
Infancy and Adolescence are periods of rapid brain development

At birth we have all the neurons we ever need (despite on 25% of the weight)

Brain development is orderly, not identical
- Survival functions develop first, higher order later...why?

The growth of the brain is due to two processes.
....what do they mean?
Love me!!!
The growth and development of white, fatty myelin around many axons through myelination contributes to the increase in brain size.

- allows neurons to be more efficient in sending messages to other neurons (not all axons are ever myelinated).

The most intense period of myelination occurs shortly after birth. By this stage, axons have also grown in size.

They are longer, with denser branching at their ends because there are more axon terminals.

There is also a burst of myelination in adolescence.

Why infancy and adolescence are considered so important to brain functioning?
Synaptogenesis involves the formation of new synapses between the brain’s neurons.

- accounts for most of the brain’s growth in size.

Remember: A synapse is the place where neighbouring neurons connect and communicate — where messages are passed from axon terminals to dendrites.

The infant brain forms far more neural connections through synaptogenesis than it will ever use.

So, weak or unused connections are ‘pruned’. This process of eliminating synaptic connections is called synaptic pruning.

Synaptic pruning is considered to be the means by which the brain ‘fine tunes’ its neural connections.

- the number of synapses in an adult is about 40% less than the number in a three-year-old.
Brain development
What would happen from 3yr old to adult hood to this image?
Frontal Lobe Development
Brain development continues into adulthood until about the mid-twenties or so, with the frontal lobes last to fully mature.

The prefrontal cortex (planning, organising, risk taking) — the association area just behind the forehead — is the very last part of the brain to mature.
3-6 yr olds
- Increase in neural connections (synapses) established in the frontal lobes (synaptogenesis)
- Leading to higher cognitive abilities

7-15 yr olds
- rapid synaptic growth (synapses) in the temporal and parietal lobes
- significant increases in language development

16-20 yr olds
- synaptic pruning in frontal lobes (unused connections are eliminated)
- more efficient cognitive functioning
- higher level functioning such as reasoning, planning, organising, solving problems, making decisions.

Game - Point to your brain.
I'll give you senarios or facts and I want you to point to the lobe responsible and state if its synaptic pruning or genesis.
Pg 150 L.A. 4.1
Q2 - Think, Pair, Share - Class discussion
Q3, Q4, Q5,
Ext Q6, 7, 8, 10
So we are about to look at damaged brains. We consider these through the following framework
Biopsychosocial Framework
Break the word down. What does it mean???
The biopsychosocial framework is an approach to describing and explaining how biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person’s physical and mental health.

Biological factors involve physiologically based or determined influences, often not under our control, such as the genes we inherit and our neurochemistry.

Psychological factors involve all those influences associated with mental processes such as how we think; learn; make decisions; solve problems; perceive our internal and external environments.

Social factors are described broadly to include such factors as our skills in interacting with others, the range and quality of our inter-personal relationships, the amount and type of support available from others when needed, as well as socio-cultural factors
It is seen as a 'holistic' view of health
- individual should be considered as a 'whole person' functioning in thier unique environment.

In the BioPsychoSocial model a personality disorder might be best explained by a combination of:
- inheretance of certian genes
- poor self image and intense fear of abandoment
- strick upbringing and lack of social skills.

Each domain is equally important for both physical and mental heath.
- Does recognise that specific factors (abuse) may have more/less influence.

Factors often interact in a complex way
- This accounts for the individual differences in mental illness

It also applies not just to mental health but also illness.

Treatment should take place across all domains.
List some more examples
Plus - Minus - Interesting Table
Brain injury pg 151
Brain injury refers to any brain damage that impairs, or interferes with, the normal functioning of the brain, either temporarily or permanently.

Most cases after birth...called acquired brain injury. E.g Collision, Disease
Brain injury can be:
- Sudden onset e.g. blow/stroke
- Insidious onset e.g. alcohol use
- Neurodegenerative disease
(progressive decline in structure and function of brain tissue) Eg. Parkinsons/Alzheimers.
After the accident Phineas suffered severe personality changes
Became impulsive, aggressive, disorganised
Could not continue his work as foreman
Appeared for a time at Barnum's American Museum in New York
February 1860, Gage had the first in a series of increasingly severe convulsions
died in or near San Francisco on May 21 — just under twelve years after his accident

Gage’s case along with others suggest the frontal lobes important role in emotion and personality, planning and initiative
Phineas gage – frontal lobe damage
September 13, 1848, 25-year-old Railway foreman
Packing gun powder into a hole with a steel pole to blow up rock
Sparks from the pole ignite the gun powder and send the pole under gage’s cheek and out the top of his head

Before the accident he was well liked, organised, calm and polite
Phineas gage – frontal lobe damage
Frontal Lobe injury Case study
BioPsychoSocial Model - Prefrontal Damage - Cage
Biological changes involved in prefrontal cortex are primarily physical in nature:
- problems with motor activities
- spontaneous movements are markedly reduced
-facial expressions tend to become blank
- head and eye movements are minimal
Psychological changes primarily involve emotion, personality and cognition,
which in turn impact on behaviour
- persistant apathy
- lack of emotional responses
- bouts of euphoria
- impulsive behaviour
- goal directed behaviour
- verbal and physical aggressiveness
- unrestrained sexual activity
**Often seen as changes in personality
***Also little change in IQ

So if this occurs with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...what advice would you give someone with an underdeveloped PFC.
Biological and psychological changes associated with frontal lobe injury, particularly personality changes and onset of socially inappropriate behaviour, can be difficult the individual’s social network.

This can lead to a breakdown in personal relationships and loss of social support.

In addition, the individual may experience difficulty establishing new social relationships.

General Brain injury puts people at risk of:
- unemployment
- homelessness
- criminal offences...jail

Read as class Box 4.2 pg 154
Temporal Lobe Injury study
Different types – mostly experienced with visual sense but can occur with hearing, touch, movement

If they acknowledge a stimulus on their neglected side they will claim it came from the other side

Can affect recall of images from memory; however it does not involve memory impairment

Can show a gradual recovery in some cases

Thought to be caused by failure of cortical arousal associated with the activities of the thalamus & reticular activating system
- but no one really knows
Attentional disorder where individuals fail to notice anything either on their left or right side
- behave as if that side of their reality does not exist.

Most common in stroke or accident victims with

to the
rear parietal lobe of the right hemisphere
- what is that lobe responsible for?

(Can sometimes occur with similar damage to the left hemisphere, but it’s less common)

Where ever the damage is L/R the opposite side of the world tends to be ignored.

They are NOT aware there is an issue with their perception.
Spatial Neglect
In Pairs
Complete the biological, psychological and social characteristics.
Pg 156 Learning Activity 4.3
Ext 2c, 3a,b,c,
Research Methods Practice
Pg 157 LA 4.5
Plasticity and effects of experience on the brain

Adaptive plasticity refers to changes occurring in the brain’s neural structure to enable adjustment to experience, to compensate for lost function and/or to maximise remaining functions in the event of brain damage.

At what stages of the lifespan is adaptive plasticity quicker, more substantial and extensive?
Apparent in recovery
from trauma due to
brain injury.
Occurs as brain development proceeds according to its
maturational blueprint or plan.
Plasticity is the ability of the brain’s neural
structure or function
be changed by experience throughout the lifespan.

Two Types: Developmental / Adaptive
(not clear cut where one starts and the other ends)
What is plasticity?
Differences were largest in the occipital lobes and smallest in the somatosensory cortex
Also showed new synapse formation
Thicker bushier dendrites
More neurotransmitter acetylcholine

Later studies showed changes in adult rat brains also placed into different environments
The brain is adaptive
It changes as a result of experience (learning)

Remember LTP?
New connections
New neural networks
Genes govern overall brain structure (architecture) but experience guides and maintains details

Plastic through out your whole life.
-But the younger you are the more plastic (changable) your brain is.
- So younger you are the more quickly you will recover from brain damage
Neural Plasticity (Flexibility)
When a particular brain area is damaged e.g. stroke other brain areas can ‘take up the slack’

This is what happens when people ‘recover’ from brain damage

Nerve cells do not regrow, rather other neurons take over the functions of the damaged cell
...and its bloody hard!

The brain reorganises the way neurons in different regions operate in response to a deficit

Deficits can occur from birth or as a result of brain damage

Congenital – E.g. People who are blind from birth may have occipital lobes that are used for senses other than vision

this may explain why people who are blind from birth have very good hearing or tactile sensitivity
Damage from birth - congenital
The brains of university graduates have approx 40% more neural connections than those who leave school early!

Intellectual stimulation can protect against dementia!
This is even true for twins who have identical genetic make up
All rats stayed in their cages for 80 days

When their brains were dissected the rats with enriched experience had thicker, heavier cerebral cortex
Lab rats placed in 3 different environments after birth with different opportunities for learning
1 – standard environment – simple communal cage with food and water
2 – impoverished environment – simple small cage housed alone
3 – enriched environment – large, social, with lots of stimulus objects
Rozenweig studies
Adaptive plasticity does not only take place due to damage. It can also occur as a consequence of everyday experience.

Eg. Musicians motor and sensory areas
Taxi drivers parietal lobes
Dancers motor areas
Adaptive plasticity and experience
Adaptive plasticity
Dramatic example of brains reassignment of functions is evident when a hemisphere is damaged and the other hemisphere takes over.

Ppl with pralised arm due to brain injury can regain full movement...moves over to the other motor cortex
The way the brain responds depends on the location, degree, extent of damage and the age at which it is experienced.

When is adaptive plasticity more effective?

At the neuronal level, the two processes for recovery are re-routing and sprouting.

Both of these processes involve forming new connections between undamaged neurons, however they do so in different ways.
Rerouting is where the undamaged neuron has lost its connection with the damaged one and may seek an active one.

Sprouting is the growth of new bushier nerve fibers with more branches to make new connections.
-...so sprouting also invovles rerouting.

Sprouting and rerouting enable the formation of entirely new connections to compensate for the loss of function (due to damaged pathways)

‘Relearning’ tasks like walking, eating etc. helps these new connections form
Rerouting or Sprouting?
Damage from Injury
Read (Simon) Recovered Functioning as class pg 159

Plus - Minus - Intesting Table as we go

Pg 162 L.A. 4.7 Notebooks
Q1, 2,
Ext 4ab, 7
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder which is characterised by both motor and non-motor symptoms (Parkinson’s Australia, 2015a)

Symptoms result from the progressive degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra, which is located in the midbrain area (see figure 4.15).

The substantia nigra helps regulate and control smooth movement throughout the body, as required for balance and walking.

Considered idiopathic - having no known cause
Muscle Rigidity
Slowness of movement
Postural instability
Practical activity
In groups of 4 take turns at presenting with one of the symptoms.
Others must guess
Please do this respectfully.
**Before you pick read about the symptom on p 163/4
Diagnosis and Treatment
Avg age of diagonsis is 55-65 years old

1 in 300 ppl in Aust have it

No know cure (as of yet).

Not contageous - can't catch it from someone.

Complex individual nature of the disease means treatment should follow the BIopsychosocial model.

Treatment of the Biological factors:
- Deep brain stimulation
- L-dopa drug treat (it is converted to dopamine by neurons.
Practical activity (in prac books)
Venn Diagram
Biopsychosocial treatment of Parkinsons.
In pairs then as a group.
Animal Studies
The use of animals allows researchers to investigate Parkinson’s disease in ways which would not be possible with humans.


Performing procedures on animals to induce Parkinson’s symptoms
- such as damaging the relevant dopamine-producing brain area or dopamine pathways to the motor cortex.
Discovery of levodopa
Swedish doctor Arvid Carlsson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000 for his animal studies on Parkinson’s disease.

His experiments revealed that dopamine played a role in the control of voluntary movements, and was linked to Parkinson’s disease.

His experiments also led to the development of levodopa for treating the disorder.
Deep brain stimulation treatment
Studies with rats and monkeys led to the development of a surgical treatment for Parkinson’s disease when levodopa and other drugs are not effective.

The treatment is called deep brain stimulation, an invasive procedure where a surgeon implants electrodes (tiny wires) within the basal ganglia.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to improve motor symptoms and reduce the need for levodopa in over 80 000 human patients throughout the world. - but risks
Neuroimaging studies
Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have long been used in the study of Parkinson’s disease.

CAT and MRI mainly provide detailed images of degeneration in brain areas and pathways. These are especially useful for diagnostic purposes
- However, CAT and MRI images are static (still). They provide useful clues about brain function but do not actually display its activity.

Functional neuroimaging techniques such as PET and fMRI are therefore preferred as they provide detailed images of both brain structure and activity.
- for example, to measure changes in the release of dopamine at synapses within the basal ganglia and observe the impact in dopamine pathways for movement.
-it is possible to observe activity within various dopamine-producing and motor areas throughout the brain at the same time.
Read as class - There has been a rich variety pg 167
Pg 168 L.A. 4.8 Please complete
Q1, 2
Extension Q3

Chr 4 test (and correction - m/c) due...

RE-read notes

SAC is in...

Fluent Apasia
This Chapter
Our story this semester
Full transcript