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Minerals and Rocks

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by

Stacey Susinno

on 20 April 2016

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Transcript of Minerals and Rocks

photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr
COLOR
Color variations within each mineral is common and many minerals have the same colors, so this is not a very reliable source of identification
Aim: How can we describe the characteristics of minerals using the ESRT?
MINERALS
What is a mineral? P. 96 text
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
More reliable than color!
The powdered form of the mineral when scratched across a streak plate.
Streak
Rose Quartz
Amythyst (purple quartz)
Citrine (yellow quartz)
This is quartz
This is not quartz
Why is color an unreliable characteristic when identifying minerals?
LUSTER
How is light reflected? Is it shiny (metallic) or non metallic? If it is non metallic is it glassy, greasy, waxy, pearly or earthy (dull)?
This is HEMATITE
Use ESRT to define its luster.
_____________ What does this mean?
Let's play! Name that LUSTER!
*NOTE: The powdered form of the mineral is sometimes different than the color of the mineral itself.
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE:
What is the atomic arrangement of atoms?
How does the mineral break?
If it breaks at specific angles following its crystal structure it shows cleavage. A
CLEAVAGE PLANE
is a flat surface. If the mineral does not break according to its crystal structure it shows
FRACTURE
. If it breaks along curved surfaces, it is called
CONCHOIDAL FRACTURE
(Quartz)
Cleavage and Fracture
fracture
Let's play! Cleavage or fracture?
conchoidal fracture
crystal structure of halite atoms
Can you predict how halite will break?
DON'T BE FOOLED!!!
Just because it has flat, shiny sides, doesn't mean it has cleavage!
quartz- conchoidal
fracture
pyrite-
fracture
Hardness
Stronger bonds between atoms or molecules in the mineral = harder mineral.
Diamonds
are made of pure carbon. It is the way that the carbon atoms are bonded that makes diamond the hardest substance.
Graphite
is also composed entirely of carbon. What is graphite's hardness?
How can diamond and graphite be composed of exactly the same element yet have completely different characteristics?
DENSITY: Most minerals range in density from 2.5 – 3.5 g/cm. Gold is the densest at 19 g/cm
3
3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY: the mineral’s density is compared with water’s density.
UNUSUAL PROPERTIES or DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS:
Sulfur smells like rotten eggs PU
Calcite
double refraction
Effervesces with acid
Halite
NEVER!
Magnetite is magnetic
MINERALS AND ROCKS
Ms. Susinno
Rock- Solid material that is made up of one* or more minerals
*approximately 20 minerals responsible for most rocks
There are 3 major
TYPES
of rocks:
IGNEOUS
,
SEDIMENTARY
and
METAMORPHIC

Rocks are classified by how they form
IGNEOUS ROCKS- formed when magma or lava cools and solidifies
Magma -molten material INSIDE of the Earth
Lava- molten material that reaches the Earth’s SURFACE
HOT ROCKS
IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE CLASSIFIED BY THEIR TEXTURE!
TEXTURE- the size, shape and arrangement of a rocks particles or crystals
CRYSTALIZATION- When molten lava or magma cools and forms a solid composed of
intergrown
mineral crystals.
coarse
or
fine
Visible, intergrown, randomly scattered crystals.
crystals are present but are too small to be identifiable.
very
course
pegmatite
granite
Diorite
Gabbro
Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
*NOTE! Texture in Igneous rocks does NOT mean how the
rock FEELS!!!!!
crystalline
Non-crystalline
GLASSY- looks like glass or feels sharp


OR

VESICULAR- has holes caused by trapped GASES escaping when rock cooled extremely quickly
obsidian
pumice
vesicular basalt
INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS- are formed when magma cools INSIDE the Earth
 These rocks have a longer time to cool so they have INTERGROWN CRYSTALS
 Most common is granite (continental crust)
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS-are formed when lava cools at or above Earth’s SURFACE
 These rocks
cool very fast
so they are glassy, vesicular or fine grained



 Most common is basalt (ocean crust)
http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid=17500&fileitem=632&catfilter=444
Click the link below for an interactive ESRT minerals chart.
http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid=17500&fileitem=614&catfilter=444
Click the link below to visit an interactive ESRT igneous rock scheme.
fluorescence!
Sedimentary Rocks
Sediment- loose
particles
from weathering (breaking down) of pre-existing rocks
(Some sediment is formed through chemical and biochemical processes)
Sediments = Particles= Grains
What is this sediment called?
cm
Strata=
LAYERS
of sedimentary rock
My boyfriend:
William "Strata" Smith
May contain FOSSILS- or mud cracks, or ripple marks.
JK.
This is not a fossil.
A fossil must
be a part of something that was once alive.
So...
are ripple marks fossils?
Nope! But they do mean you're looking at a sedimentary rock!
Sediment becomes sedimentary rock through
LITHIFICATION
-process in which sediments compact under pressure and gradually become solid rock

1.
COMPACTION
- due to pressure or weight of overlying sediments
2.
CEMENTATION
-by deposition of minerals in pore spaces from waters carrying ions in solution
http://whs.moodledo.co.uk/file.php/3204/RockCycle/Sedimentary_Rocks/cementation.swf
http://ees.as.uky.edu/sites/default/files/elearning/module08swf.swf
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/strahler/0471417416/interactivities/flash/mineralogy/mineralogy.htm
http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetailid=17500&fileitem=615&catfilter=444&PHPSESSID=bd000fd1fa0922800d727f7c94b9794e
Sedimentary rocks can be either:
1.
Clastic
- fragment of rock, usually rounded by wind or running water
Or
2.
Chemically or organically formed
a.
Crystalline

Ex)
Evaporites
-form when water evaporates and leaves minerals behind (rock salt or rock gypsum)
b.
Bioclastic
Ex) LIMESTONE- results from deposition of calcite from weathered shells or bones which precipitate to the bottom of warm deep ocean water or lakes
Clastic
Breccia
Conglomerate
Sandstone
Siltstone
Shale
fragmental
Crystalline
INORGANIC
Rock Salt
Rock Gypsum
Dolostone
evaporites
Limestone- sometimes has fossils in it
Coquina- limestone made of shells cemented together
form when water evaporates and leaves minerals behind (rock salt or rock gypsum)
Don't be fooled!
This has FOSSILS OF SHELLS
This has SHELLS CEMENTED TOGETHER
Bioclastic
How Walter became a sedimentary rock
The story of Bituminous coal and a really good segue into metamorphic rocks :0)
This is also bioclastic-bituminous coal

Go back to the pictures of Igneous rocks.
Which of the following sentences apply?

The rock is
IGNEOUS
because it has
RANDOMLY SCATTERED CRYSTALS.

The rock is
IGNEOUS
because it has a
GLASSY TEXTURE.

The rock

is
IGNEOUS
because it has a
VESICULAR TEXTURE
HERE'S A TIP
HERE'S A TIP

Go back to the pictures of Sedimentary rocks.
Which of the following sentences apply?

The rock is
sedimentary
because
IT HAS FOSSILS
.

The rock is
sedimentary
because
IT HAS LAND DERIVED SEDIMENTS CEMENTED TOGETHER.

The rock is
sedimentary
because
IT HAS SHELL FRAGMENTS CEMENTED TOGETHER.

The rock is
sedimentary
because
IT IS AN EVAPORITE.

The rock is
sedimentary
because
IT IS BIOCLASTIC.
HERE'S A TIP

Metamorphic Rocks- an igneous, a sedimentary, or a pre-existing metamorphic rock that has been changed due to
heat and/or pressure
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Re
crystallization- a process in which rocks undergo change
without true melting.
Mineral Alignment
- minerals may separate into
light and dark bands
within a metamorphic rock (isn’t that gneiss?:0)
Metamorphic rocks
show distortion
•Strata may become
distorted
, new minerals may form, and crystals may grow. This sometimes happens in folding.

folding
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0607/es0607page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization
watch me
Foliated
– when the minerals are aligned in rocks such that they are easy to split
Occurs due to pressure
Ex) rocks changed due to contact are NOT foliated)
Look at your ESRT
Are all foliated rocks banded?
This rock is foliated
slate
This rock is foliated
phyllite
This rock is foliated schist.
watch your language!!
There are two types of Metamorphism
Regional Metamorphism
•Due to heat and pressure
•Occurs over a large area
•Usually associated with Mountain building or rocks changed very deep within the Earth
•Rocks can be Foliated or Nonfoliated
Contact Metamorphism
• Due to only heat
• Occurs over a small area
• Occurs when magma or lava comes into contact with surrounding rock.
• Rocks are Nonfoliated
• Represented on diagrams by lines around intrusions
Let's draw contact metamorphism and all three TYPES of rocks in one diagram :0)
earth science
HORNFELS only forms from contact metamorphism
granite
Hornfels
Interactive rock cycle
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm
Other non-foliated metamorphic rocks:
Anthracite coal
Remember, I used to be bituminous coal?
Quartzite
boring... almost all of the rocks you'll find are this one :(
Why?
Marble
David was carved from marble
David, that attire does not meet the Weber dress code!
I used to be a conglomerate!
What happened?
*note- we do NOT have metaconglomerate in this school
Here's a tip!


The rock is metamorphic because it shows
FOLIATION
http://www.sounddogs.com/sound-effects/2710/mp3/470480_SOUNDDOGS__hu.mp3
RIP Walter
Gneiss
or
SEDIMENTS
cemented together
Don't freak out, it will only waste time. YOU KNOW THIS!
RELAX AND ENJOY!
Don't hold glass plate in your hand to test the mineral!
Put the pushpins and the string into the petri dish!
General practical tips:
You will not test well if you are bleeding!
It takes too long to chase them across the AP room
Don't be absent!
The arrangement of atoms determines a mineral's physical properties
Note* layers banding foliation
sedimentary
metamorphic
metamorphic
slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
gneiss
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
find diagrams here: http://roygbivearthscience.weebly.com/2/post/2014/03/coal-and-metamorphic-rocks.html
Now go back and practice identifying the rocks pictures!
For June:
$$$$$$$
$
gold
pyrite (fool's gold)
The
silicate
minerals are rock-forming minerals, constituting approximately 90 percent of the crust of the Earth. They are classified based on the structure of their silicate group which contain different ratios of silicon and oxygen. They make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals.
Quartz is a silicate!
The internal arrangement of atoms makes it have a hardness of 7!
Silicates are the most abundant minerals in Earth's crust
Quartz & Feldspars
Don't take them for Granite!
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/environment_earth_universe/rock_cycle/activity/
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/strahler/0471417416/interactivities/flash/mineralogy/mineralogy.htm
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