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Ch. 11 Relational Dialectics

A First Look at Communication Theory - Griffin, Ledbetter, Sparks
by

Kristina Wenzel Egan

on 20 September 2018

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Transcript of Ch. 11 Relational Dialectics

Relational Dialectics Theory

Relational dialectics:

The dynamic and unceasing struggle between discourses about interpersonal relationships
Discourse:
A set of propositions that cohere around a given object of meaning.
Monologue:
Dominant talk that silences competing voices.
Dominant Discourse:
talk that is central and prominent, with power to define meaning
Dialogue:
Multiple voices: talk where unity and difference play with and against one another.
Marginalized Discourse:
talk that is peripheral, lacking power to define meaning

***Suggests that "relationships achieve meaning through the active interplay of multiple, competing discourses" (Baxter, 2011, p. 7).***
Me We
Old New
Reveal Conceal
RDT applied to military marriages
Interviews with 50 wives of deployed soldiers
3 Relational Contradictions emerged

"[Before my husband left] it was like fear. Fear of the unknown and that loss of control. It finally hits you. I have no say in my own life."
Big fear: "...was that he would be different when he came home. Different in a negative way."


"[My daughters and I] woke up the next morning [after my husband left for Iraq] and I said, 'Okay, time to get on with our lives.'"
*Stay connected in marriage
Phone calls: "I want to be here when you call but I can't spend the next 8 months sitting by the telephone"


"[There are] things he couldn't say to me that he thought would scare me or upset me so he went and talked to his dad... especially with him going back I know that I would just worry a lot more."
Wartime Deployment: Wives' Perspectives Revealed through Relational Dialectics
Integration
Internal Dialectics:
discursive struggles played out within a r'ship
Common Dialectical Tensions
Connection & Autonomy
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Stability
Expression
External Dialectics:
discursive struggles played out between a couple and their community
Certainty
& Uncertainty
Revelation & Concealment
Openness & Closedness
Conventionality & Uniqueness
Inclusion & Exclusion
Connection-Autonomy: Individuals desire connection with close relationships, but they also want personal freedom.

Inclusion-Seclusion: Close relationships want to spend time with their social network, but they also want time with just their close relationship.

The Dialectic of Integration-Separation
People experience tension between needs for social integration and social division.
Certainty - Uncertainty: Individuals want routine and consistency in their close relationships, but they also want spontaneity and novelty.

Conventionality-Uniqueness: Close relationships want to adhere to social norms to fit in with others, but they also want to see themselves as unique.

The Dialectic of Stability-Change
People want security and continuity, but they also want excitement.
Openness-Closedness: Individuals want to feel free to self-disclose, but also to keep some secrets from others.

Revelation-Concealment: Individuals want to talk about their close relationships with their social networks, but they also want to maintain privacy.

The Dialectic of Expression-Privacy
People want to be able to express themselves to others but also to keep some information private
Uncertainty-Certainty
Autonomy-Connection
Openness-Closedness
We draw from existing discourses when we talk.
Frances - Direct Interplay
Dialogue as Utterance Chain
Distant Already-Spokens

Distant Not-Yet-Spokens
Nearby Already-Spokens
Nearby Not-Yet-Spokens
Cultural Ideologies
Discourse of individualism & community
Discourse of privacy
Discourse of romanticism
Anticipated normative evaluation to be provided by a possible future listener who is not physically present when the utterance is voiced.
Normative evaluation of 3rd party.
Superaddressee: an untterance's future audience whose moral authority is beyond question.
Meaning made from the relationship history
Relationship specific discourses from past
Anticipated conversations with the person in the future
Anticipated responses of the partner(s) to the speaker's words and nonverbal gestures
Dialogically Contractive
Single-voiced monologue
Dominant discourse

Dialogically Expansive
Aesthetic moment

Double-voiced dialogue
Diachronic separation: Different Discourses at Different Times
Spiraling inversion & Segmentation
Synchronic interplay: Different Discourses at Same Time
Negating, countering, entertaining, transforming

Independence & Dependence
Direct Interplay
Single-voiced Monologue (privileging independence)
Openness & Closedness
Singled-voiced Monologue (privileging openness)
Diachronic Separation
Anticipating Death & Sustaining Life
Hidden Polemical Interplay
Antagonistic Struggle
Aesthetic Moment

Oh when he calls me, he’ll say [pause] what’s a matter mother don’t ya feel good today? Now I try not to portray that when I answer the phone but he always can tell if I’m not feeling good.
I: Why don’t you portray that?
Well I don’t- I don’t want him to worry about me [laughter] I’m mother! I can take care of myself [laughter]. No he’s—I don’t know, I have absolutely no complaints whatsoever. None. (2: 304-307).

Findings: Older Parents Talking about Relationship with Adult Children
Yeah, I had to do that anyway, call.
I: Why do you feel like you have to check in with Gary?
C: Because he’s the guy I trust. He calls me every night and during the day. Just to make sure I’m OK. No one else does that. (3: 364-367)

Charles - Single-Voiced Monologue
Beverly - Antagonistic Struggle
Because they didn’t think I was going to make it in the hospital with my heart attack and my kids said, “you know mom, I’m so glad you’re with us yet” and I said, “you know what? I’m getting older, I’m not going to be here forever.” [laughter] So I think they appreciate me too because we get along real well. (1: 132-136)

Objectives
Competing discourses that animated older parents’ talk about the changing nature of their relationship with their adult children
The meanings that were constructed in their interplay
Method: In-depth interviews with older parents (average age of 82)

Older Parents, Discourses, and Relational Change
Step 1: Identify discourses in the text
Step 2: Identify contrasting discourses in the text
Step 3: Identify how the interplay of discourses constructs meaning in the text

Contrapuntal Analysis
"relational dialects is about struggle between discourses, and these unceasing struggles are 'located in the relationship between parties, produced and reproduced through the parties' joint communicative activity'" (p. 132)
Dialogue as an Aesthetic Moment
Dialogue can be “a momentary sense of unity through a profound respect for the disparate voices in dialogue.”
A meaningful ritual can be an aesthetic moment for all participants because it’s a joint performance of normally competing and contradictory voices,

"I was struck by the contradictions, contingencies, non-rationalities, and multiple realities to which people gave voice in their narrative sense-making of their relational lives" -Baxter (as cited on p. 136).
How does Rachel make meaning in this excerpt from
Friends
?
How does meaning emerge from struggle between discourses?
Dominant Discourse:
talk that is central and prominent, with power to define meaning
Marginalized Discourse:
talk that is peripheral, lacking power to define meaning
Can people change?


To answer this question, you might draw from cultural discourses about the nature of humans.
What discursive struggle does Author Elizabeth Gilbert give voice to in this clip?
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