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Complimentary and alternative medicine
Transcript of Complimentary and alternative medicine
In the past 30 years the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has grown dramatically.
Complimentary and Alternative
In use in China for nearly 3,000 years
Illness occurs when the flow of qi is blocked
One principle of homeopathy is the law of similars, or “like cures like.”
Dominant health care system in the United States, Canada, and much of Europe and other parts of the developed world.
CHAPTER 17: Complimentary and alternative medicine
“a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine.”
United States spent an estimated $33.9 billion out of pocket for CAM in 2007
Traditional Chinese Medicine
Native American Medicine
Fraud & Quackery
Characteristics of Conventional Medicine
Illness is the result of pathogens like bacteria and viruses or organic changes in the body.
Health is restored when a medical practitioner treats the illness with drugs, vaccines, or surgery.
This model has been highly successful in reducing:
enhancing quality of life
lengthening life expectancy
The body is like a machine; it can be broken down into parts that, in the case of illness, need to be fixed
3 Principles of Conventional
An illness is a set of symptoms that are similar in everyone who has the illness. Thus, can be given the same treatments for a particular disease
The causes of disease and treatments for them are conducted using the
Other terms include:
Group of practices used together
25/75 CAM to Conventional
Group of practices used as an
to conventional medicine
conventional medicine and CAM practices
50/50 CAM to Conventional
The body is believed to have an inherent balance or ability to heal itself
Treatments are aimed at restoring the body's self-healing capabilities
The whole person is treated: physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions
Diagnosis and treatment are individualized
Many practices use a combination of interventions
WHY USE CAM?
Focus on maintaining or restoring the physical, mental, and spiritual well-being
Good health stems from the free flow of qi (chi), vital energy or life force, through the body
A result of an imbalance between yin and yang, two opposing but inseparable principles
Yin represents the inactive, internal, cold, and dark
Yang represents the active, external, hot, and bright
Diagnosis & Treatment
Diagnosis in TCM involves evaluating an individual for signs of imbalance:
Appearance of the tongue
Quality of the pulse
Primary treatment methods are herbal medicines, acupuncture, and dietary modification
Preventing Illness with TCM
maintaining a proper lifestyle
eating a balanced diet
getting regular sleep
avoiding excessive stress
getting adequate exercise
Several herbs are combined in a formula; the proportions and dosage are adjusted to suit the particular patient
Long, thin needles are inserted at certain points in the skin to stimulate the flow of qi
Pressure applied with the fingers or hands at these same locations as acupuncture
It is unclear how acupuncture works given that placebo acupuncture is often
as effective as acupuncture.
The FDA requires the use sterile, disposable needles to reduce the risk of spreading infection
One of the oldest healing systems in the world
Practiced in India for 5,000 years
Balance among the body, mind, and spirit
Sets a goal of restoring harmony to the individual
Considered a holistic practice
Three energy sources present in all things
Vatta - energy of movement, consists of space and air
Pitta - energy of metabolism and digestion, consists of fire and water
Kapha - energy that forms body structure and holds cells together, consists of earth and water
When your three doshas are in balance, you are in good health.
When there is an imbalance in your doshas, your body is susceptible to disease
Research into the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic practice is limited
No formalized Ayurvedic training or licensing system in the United States
a substance that causes disease in a healthy person can cure the same symptoms in a sick person
The second principle is minimal dose
intended to encourage the body to heal itself;
thus a single small dose is often enough
Remedies are derived from many natural sources
There is little evidence to support the effectiveness of homeopathy
The body has the ability to heal itself
Its goal is to stimulate the body to do so
Especially through nutrition
Health is believed to be the natural order if one lives wisely and simply
Cleansing and strengthening the body rather than treating the symptoms
massage and joint manipulation
stress reduction techniques
The benefits or harms of detoxification have been neither clinically studied nor disproven
Native American Medicine
System of medicine that varied from tribe to tribe but shared certain features
A common thread is the relationship of humans with one another, the natural environment, and the spiritual world
Healers, sometimes called shamans or medicine men or women, are considered to have spiritual powers
Healing is passed down through the same family.
The healer usually learns the medicinal uses of roots, herbs, and other plants.
Negative thoughts about oneself or others or the breaking of taboos
Poisons, traumas, ghosts, witchcraft, or negative thoughts sent from another person
INTERNAL CAUSES OF DISEASE:
EXTERNAL CAUSES OF DISEASE:
Techniques aid in diagnosis and treatment:
use of sweat lodges
Specific remedies may include prayer, healing touch, herbal teas, tinctures, charms, and healing rituals
Based on the premise that the mind influences the body in ways that can promote or detract from well-being
Perceptions, beliefs, and patterns of thinking have a powerful effect on the immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, and other parts of the body
MANIPULATIVE AND BODY-BASED PRACTICES
Healing could be achieved through manipulation of the musculoskeletal system without the use of drugs
Since the introduction of antibiotics in the 1940s, most osteopaths have included the use of drugs in their practice
Health system that focuses on realigning dislocated vertebrae to restore the flow of energy from the brain to the rest of the body.
It is widely accepted as a form of manual healing; many health insurance plans cover chiropractic treatments
Studies of the effectiveness have focused on its use in treating low back pain and neck pain
Influences on health care choices
Insurance status is a major factor influencing when, where, and how people access health care.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 2010
2010 - Young Adults on parents insurance until 26 years of age
2014 - No denial of pre-existing conditions
All Americans required to buy health insurance, subsides available for those who cannot afford it
2018 - NO MORE DEDUCTIBLES or COPAY for Preventative Care
Financial concerns means you may be more likely to delay receiving health care and preventive services
Without insurance, chronic health conditions are less well controlled because the costs of medications and provider visits can be prohibitive.
Preventive services such as vaccinations and cancer screening tests are also likely to be delayed or avoided,
The result is that individuals may suffer or die from potentially treatable diseases.
Medical Fraud and Quackery
What makes people vulnerable to medical fraud and quackery?
• Naiveté - If it's in the news or in print, it must be true.People wouldn't lie about their experiences—I believe their testimonials.
• Mistrust and skepticism about conventional medicine - The establishment can't be trusted; natural alternatives are safer.
• Desperation - Conventional medicine hasn't helped; I'll try anything.
Why do bogus treatments sometimes appear to be helpful?
• Spontaneous remission
• Condition runs its course
• Placebo effect
• Selective memory
• Strong desire to believe
What are some warning signs of fraud and quackery?
• Claims of a cure for a previously incurable disease
• Product described as miraculous, secret, or foolproof
• Use of anecdotes and testimonials for support but no research
• Assertion that a conspiracy exists to suppress cures—that the product is something the AMA or the government “doesn't want you to know about”
• Assertion that the products' critics have been bought off by drug companies
• Claim that most diseases are caused by poor nutrition and can be remedied with supplements
• Claim that positive thinking can cure disease
• The suggestion that you should “think for yourself” rather than following the advice of the medical community
• The product is available only through the mail or at special outlets