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Introduction to Diversity
Transcript of Introduction to Diversity
LUCA: Last Universal Common Ancestor (3.5 - 3.8 Ga)
Green Filamentous Bacteria
Solid Earth forms (4.6 Ga*)
*Billion Years Ago
First Cells (3.8 Ga)
Photo by Tom Oates
Lemurs and Lorises
New World Monkeys
Old World Monkeys
Photo by Terry Goss
Photo by Stan Shebs
How Are These Built?
Phylogenetics: Evolutionary history of a species (or group of related species)
Most modern phylogenetic trees are built using molecular data
Early phylogenetic tree
Monophyletic group: ancestral species and ALL descendants
Paraphyletic group: ancestral species and SOME descendants
Polyphyletic group: lacks a common ancestor
The most correct tree has the fewest independent evolutionary events
Also called Occam's Razor
Not always true...
Clade: Group of related species
Species begin divergence from common ancestor
DNA sequences don't look very similar anymore....
but computers are really smart. (actually its the programmers)
1. Sort homologies from analogies. Homology is a similar structure with a shared ancestry. Analogy is a different structure with a similar function.
2. Sort shared primitive characters from shared derived characters. A primitive character is one that is not limited to the group being studied (ie. backbones in mammals.) A derived character is one that is unique to the clade (ie. hair in mammals.)
3. Construct a data matrix comparing characteristics and compare the group being studied to an out group (a closely related species that is not being studied.)